BP102T Pharmaceutical Analysis I – Theory

BP102T Pharmaceutical Analysis I – Theory

UNIT-I

(a) Pharmaceutical analysis- Definition and scope

i) Different techniques of analysis
ii) Methods of expressing concentration
iii) Primary and secondary standards.
iv) Preparation and standardization of various molar and normal solutions- Oxalic acid, sodium hydroxide, hydrochloric acid, sodium thiosulphate, sulphuric acid, potassium permanganate and ceric ammonium sulphate

(b)Errors

Sources of errors, types of errors, methods of minimizing errors, accuracy, precision and significant figures

(c)Pharmacopoeia, Sources of impurities in medicinal agents,limit tests.

UNIT-II

Acid base titration

Theories of acid base indicators, classification of acid base titrations and theory involved in titrations of strong, weak, and very weak acids and bases, neutralization curves

Non aqueous titration

Solvents, acidimetry and alkalimetry titration and estimation of Sodium benzoate and Ephedrine HCl

UNIT-III

Precipitation titrations

Mohr’s method, Volhard’s, Modified Volhard’s, Fajans method, estimation of sodium chloride.

Complexometric titration

Classification, metal ion indicators, masking and demasking reagents, estimation of Magnesium sulphate, and calcium gluconate.

Gravimetry

Principle and steps involved in gravimetric analysis. Purity of the precipitate: co-precipitation and post precipitation, Estimation of barium sulphate.

Diazotisation titration.

Basic Principles,methods and application of diazotisation titration.

UNIT-IV

Redox titrations

(a) Concepts of oxidation and reduction
(b) Types of redox titrations (Principles and applications)
Cerimetry, Iodimetry, Iodometry, Bromatometry, Dichrometry, Titration with potassium iodate

UNIT-V

Electrochemical methods of analysis
Conductometry

Introduction, Conductivity cell, Conductometric titrations, applications.

Potentiometry

Electrochemical cell, construction and working of reference (Standard hydrogen, silver chloride electrode and calomel electrode) and indicator electrodes (metal electrodes and glass electrode), methods to determine end point of potentiometric titration and applications.

Polarography

Principle, Ilkovic equation, construction and working of dropping mercury electrode and rotating platinum electrode, applications