May 19, 2024

Principles and applications of Dichrometry

Principles and applications of Dichrometry

Dichrometry is a type of redox titration that uses potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) as the oxidizing agent. Here are the principles of dichrometry:

1. Oxidation state change:

Potassium dichromate exists in the +6 oxidation state of chromium. During the titration, it gets reduced to the +3 oxidation state, as shown in the equation below:

Cr2O72− + 14H+ + 6e− → 2Cr3+ + 7H2O

2. Acidic medium:

Dichromate titration requires an acidic medium, typically with sulfuric acid (H2SO4). This is because the reduction of dichromate involves the consumption of hydrogen ions:

Cr2O72− + 14H+ + 6e− → 2Cr3+ + 7H2O

If the medium is not acidic enough, the reaction will not proceed to completion.

3. Self-indicator:

Potassium dichromate is a deep orange color, while its reduced form, Cr3+, is green. This color change serves as a self-indicator for the titration, eliminating the need for an external indicator. As the titrant (potassium dichromate) is added, the orange color gradually fades, and the green color of the reduced form becomes more prominent. The endpoint of the titration is reached when the last drop of titrant causes a permanent change from orange to green.

4. Suitable reducing agents:

Dichromate can oxidize a variety of reducing agents, including:

  • Ferrous ions (Fe2+)
  • Iodides (I−)
  • Arsenic (III) (As3+)
  • Antimony (III) (Sb3+)
  • Iron (II) oxalate

The specific reducing agent used will depend on the analyte being determined.

5. Standardization of dichromate solution:

Before using potassium dichromate for titration, its concentration needs to be standardized. This is usually done by titrating it against a primary standard, such as sodium oxalate (Na2C2O4).

6. Applications:

Dichrometry is widely used in analytical chemistry for the quantitative determination of various substances, including:

  • Iron content in steel and other alloys
  • Antioxidants in food and beverages
  • Vitamin C content in fruits and vegetables
  • Arsenic in water and soil
  • Antimony in pharmaceuticals

Advantages of dichrometry:

  • Simple and easy to perform
  • Self-indicating
  • High degree of accuracy
  • Wide range of applications

Disadvantages of dichrometry:

  • Limited to reducing agents that can be oxidized by dichromate
  • Requires an acidic medium, which can be corrosive
  • The orange color of the dichromate can mask the color change at the endpoint

Here is a table summarizing the principles of dichrometry:

PrincipleDescription
Oxidation state changePotassium dichromate is reduced from the +6 oxidation state to the +3 oxidation state.
Acidic mediumAn acidic medium is required for the reaction to proceed.
Self-indicatorPotassium dichromate is its own indicator, changing color from orange to green at the endpoint.
Suitable reducing agentsDichromate can oxidize a variety of reducing agents.
Standardization of dichromate solutionThe concentration of potassium dichromate solution needs to be standardized before use.
ApplicationsDichrometry is used for the quantitative determination of various substances.
AdvantagesSimple, easy to perform, self-indicating, high accuracy, wide range of applications.
DisadvantagesLimited to reducing agents that can be oxidized by dichromate, requires an acidic medium, color change may be masked.

Dichrometry is a type of redox titration that involves the use of a dichromate ion (Cr2O7^-2) as the oxidizing agent. The principle of dichrometry is based on the fact that the dichromate ion can be reduced to the chromium (III) ion (Cr^3+) by a reducing agent, such as Fe^2+, Sn^2+, or C2O4^-2, in an acidic solution. The endpoint of the titration is indicated by a change in color, usually from orange to green, as the dichromate ion is reduced.

Applications of Dichrometry:

Determination of iron:

Dichrometry is commonly used for the determination of iron in various substances, including food, water, and soil. Iron is oxidized by the dichromate ion in an acidic solution, and the endpoint of the titration is indicated by a change in color from orange to green.

Determination of copper:

Dichrometry can also be used for the determination of copper in various substances, such as alloys, ores, and industrial products. Copper is oxidized by the dichromate ion in an acidic solution, and the endpoint of the titration is indicated by a change in color from orange to green.

Determination of sulfite:

Dichrometry is also used for the determination of sulfite in food and beverage products, as sulfite can be oxidized to sulfate by the dichromate ion in an acidic solution. The endpoint of the titration is indicated by a change in color from orange to green.

Determination of organic compounds:

Dichrometry can also be used for the determination of organic compounds, such as aldehydes and ketones, which can be oxidized by the dichromate ion in an acidic solution. The endpoint of the titration is indicated by a change in color from orange to green.

Overall, dichrometry is a useful analytical technique for the determination of various substances, including metals, sulfite, and organic compounds. The technique is simple, inexpensive, and widely used in various industries and research fields.

First Year B Pharm Notes, Syllabus, Books, PDF Subjectwise/Topicwise

F Y B Pharm Sem-IF Y B Pharm Sem-II
BP101T Human Anatomy and Physiology I TheoryBP201T Human Anatomy and Physiology II – Theory
BP102T Pharmaceutical Analysis I TheoryBP202T Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry I Theory
BP103T Pharmaceutics I TheoryBP203T Biochemistry – Theory
BP104T Pharmaceutical Inorganic Chemistry TheoryBP204T Pathophysiology – Theory
BP105T Communication skills TheoryBP205T Computer Applications in Pharmacy Theory
BP106RBT Remedial BiologyBP206T Environmental sciences – Theory
BP106RMT Remedial Mathematics TheoryBP207P Human Anatomy and Physiology II Practical
BP107P Human Anatomy and Physiology PracticalBP208P Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry I Practical
BP108P Pharmaceutical Analysis I PracticalBP209P Biochemistry Practical
BP109P Pharmaceutics I PracticalBP210P Computer Applications in Pharmacy Practical
BP110P Pharmaceutical Inorganic Chemistry Practical
BP111P Communication skills Practical
BP112RBP Remedial Biology Practical

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