February 23, 2024

Sources of errors in Pharmaceuticals

Sources of errors in Pharmaceuticals

There are various sources of errors that can occur during pharmaceutical analysis. Some of the most common sources of errors include:

Sample preparation errors:

Errors during sample preparation can lead to inaccurate results. Examples of such errors include insufficient mixing, inadequate extraction or purification, contamination, and degradation of the sample.

Instrumental errors:

Instrumental errors may occur due to malfunctioning or misalignment of the instrument, instability of the electronic circuitry, improper calibration, or improper use of the instrument.

Human errors:

Human errors can occur at any stage of the analytical process. Some examples include data entry errors, calculation errors, transcription errors, and misinterpretation of results.

Environmental factors:

Environmental factors such as temperature, humidity, and air quality can affect the accuracy of analytical results.

Reagent errors:

Errors can occur during the preparation and handling of reagents, leading to inaccurate results. Examples of such errors include incorrect storage, contamination, and deterioration of reagents.


Interference from other substances in the sample or from the environment can lead to inaccurate results. Interference can be caused by matrix effects, ion suppression or enhancement, and chemical or physical interactions between the analyte and other substances.

Sampling errors:

Sampling errors can occur due to the inadequacy of the sample size, non-representative sampling, or sampling from non-uniform mixtures.

It is essential to identify and minimize sources of error in pharmaceutical analysis to ensure accurate and reliable results. This can be achieved by implementing appropriate quality control measures, validation of methods, regular maintenance of equipment, and training of personnel.

First Year B Pharm Notes, Syllabus, Books, PDF Subjectwise/Topicwise

F Y B Pharm Sem-IF Y B Pharm Sem-II
BP101T Human Anatomy and Physiology I TheoryBP201T Human Anatomy and Physiology II – Theory
BP102T Pharmaceutical Analysis I TheoryBP202T Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry I Theory
BP103T Pharmaceutics I TheoryBP203T Biochemistry – Theory
BP104T Pharmaceutical Inorganic Chemistry TheoryBP204T Pathophysiology – Theory
BP105T Communication skills TheoryBP205T Computer Applications in Pharmacy Theory
BP106RBT Remedial BiologyBP206T Environmental sciences – Theory
BP106RMT Remedial Mathematics TheoryBP207P Human Anatomy and Physiology II Practical
BP107P Human Anatomy and Physiology PracticalBP208P Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry I Practical
BP108P Pharmaceutical Analysis I PracticalBP209P Biochemistry Practical
BP109P Pharmaceutics I PracticalBP210P Computer Applications in Pharmacy Practical
BP110P Pharmaceutical Inorganic Chemistry Practical
BP111P Communication skills Practical
BP112RBP Remedial Biology Practical

Suggested readings: