May 30, 2024

Overview of Vaccines, Vaccine types

Overview of Vaccines, Vaccine types


Chapter 2 Social Pharmacy Notes 2.1 Demography and Family Planning, 2.2 Mother and child health, 2.3 Importance of breastfeeding, 2.4 Ill effects of infant milk substitutes and bottle feeding 2.5 Overview of Vaccines, 2.6 Types of immunity 2.7 Immunization 2.8 Effect of Environment on Health 2.8.1 Water pollution 2.8.1.2 Importance of safe drinking water, waterborne diseases 2.8.2 Air pollution 2.8.3 Noise pollution 2.8.4 Sewage and solid waste disposal 2.8.5 Occupational illnesses 2.8.6 Environmental pollution due to pharmaceuticals 2.8.7 Psychosocial Pharmacy: Drugs of misuse and abuse – psychotropics, narcotics, alcohol, tobacco products.


Vaccine types

  1. Inactivated or attenuated microorganism
  2. Subunit

Protein subunit–rather than introducing an inactivated or attenuated microorganism to an immune system (which would constitute a “whole-agent” vaccine), a fragment of it can create an immune response. Examples include the subunit vaccine against Hepatitis B virus that is composed of only the surface proteins of the virus (previously extracted from the blood serum of chronically infected patients, but now produced by recombination of the viral genes into yeast), the virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine against human papillomavirus (HPV) that is composed of the viral major capsid protein, and the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase subunits of the influenza virus.

3. Conjugate

Certain bacteria have polysaccharide outer coats that are poorly immunogenic. By linking these outer coats to proteins (e.g., toxins), the immune system can be led to recognize the polysaccharide as if it were a protein antigen. This approach is used in the Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine.

Valence

  • Monovalent (also called univalent) vaccine is designed to immunize against a single antigen or single micro- organism.
  • Multivalent (also called polyvalent)–It is designed to immunize against two or more strains of the same microorganism, or against two or more microorganisms

Types of Vaccines

TypeLive attenuated VaccineKilled vaccine
BacterialTuberculosis (BCG)Cholera Typhoid Whooping cough
ViralSmall Pox Rubella Measles Yellow fever MumpsPoliomyelitis Influenza Rabies
Rickettsial Typhus
ToxoidsDiphtheria 
 Tetanus 

Vaccines: Source, Storage and routes of administration

Types of VaccinesSourceStorage and Route of Administration
CholeraVibrio cholera2–8°C and By Sub
Vaccine(2 strains–Inabacutaneous route
 and Ogawa)(S.C.)
BCG VaccineBacillus of Calmette2–8°C and by
(Freeze-Dried)and Guerin strainIntra cutaneous
 of Mycobacteriumroute
 tuberculosis var. 
 Bovis. 
Small PoxVaccinia/Variola virus2–8°C Puncture
(Freeze-Dried) into skin
Yellow fever17 D strain of yellow2–8°C and By Sub
vaccinefever viruscutaneous route
  (S.C.)
Rabies vaccineRabies virus2–8°C and By
(Freeze-Dried) S.C. or I.M route

Excipients

Besides the active vaccine itself, the following excipients are commonly present in vaccine preparations:

  • Aluminum salts (Aluminium Sulphate) or gels are added as adjuvants. Adjuvants are added to promote an earlier, more potent response, and more persistent im- mune response to the vaccine; they allow for a lower vaccine dosage.
    • Antibiotics are added to some vaccines to prevent the growth of bacteria during production and storage of the vaccine.
    • Egg protein is present in influenza and yellow fever vaccines as they are prepared using chicken eggs. Other proteins may be present.
    • Formaldehyde is used to inactivate bacterial products for toxoid vaccines. Formaldehyde is also used to kill unwanted viruses and bacteria that might contaminate the vaccine during production.
    • Monosodium glutamate (MSG) and 2-phenoxyethanol are used as stabilizers in a few vaccines to help the vaccine remain unchanged when the vaccine is exposed to heat, light, acidity, or humidity.
    • Thimerosal is a mercury-containing preservative that is added to vials of vaccine that contain more than one dose to prevent contamination and growth of potentially harmful bacteria.


Reference:

The Pearson Guide to the GPAT and Other Competitive Examinations in Pharmacy, Third Edition by Umang Shah et al.


F Y D Pharm Notes, Books, Syllabus, PDF, Videos

S. No.Name of the Course
1.ER20-11T Pharmaceutics Theory
2.ER20-11P Pharmaceutics Practical
3.ER20-12T Pharmaceutical Chemistry Theory
4.ER20-12P Pharmaceutical Chemistry Practical
5.ER20-13T Pharmacognosy Theory
6.ER20-13P Pharmacognosy Practical
7.ER20-14T Human Anatomy & Physiology Theory
8.ER20-14P Human Anatomy & Physiology Practical
9.ER20-15T Social Pharmacy Theory
10.ER20-15P Social Pharmacy Practical
F Y D Pharm Syllabus

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