Overview of Vaccines, Vaccine types
Chapter 2 Social Pharmacy Notes 2.1 Demography and Family Planning, 2.2 Mother and child health, 2.3 Importance of breastfeeding, 2.4 Ill effects of infant milk substitutes and bottle feeding 2.5 Overview of Vaccines, 2.6 Types of immunity 2.7 Immunization 2.8 Effect of Environment on Health 2.8.1 Water pollution 18.104.22.168 Importance of safe drinking water, waterborne diseases 2.8.2 Air pollution 2.8.3 Noise pollution 2.8.4 Sewage and solid waste disposal 2.8.5 Occupational illnesses 2.8.6 Environmental pollution due to pharmaceuticals 2.8.7 Psychosocial Pharmacy: Drugs of misuse and abuse – psychotropics, narcotics, alcohol, tobacco products.
Table of contents
- Inactivated or attenuated microorganism
Protein subunit–rather than introducing an inactivated or attenuated microorganism to an immune system (which would constitute a “whole-agent” vaccine), a fragment of it can create an immune response. Examples include the subunit vaccine against Hepatitis B virus that is composed of only the surface proteins of the virus (previously extracted from the blood serum of chronically infected patients, but now produced by recombination of the viral genes into yeast), the virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine against human papillomavirus (HPV) that is composed of the viral major capsid protein, and the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase subunits of the influenza virus.
Certain bacteria have polysaccharide outer coats that are poorly immunogenic. By linking these outer coats to proteins (e.g., toxins), the immune system can be led to recognize the polysaccharide as if it were a protein antigen. This approach is used in the Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine.
- Monovalent (also called univalent) vaccine is designed to immunize against a single antigen or single micro- organism.
- Multivalent (also called polyvalent)–It is designed to immunize against two or more strains of the same microorganism, or against two or more microorganisms
Types of Vaccines
|Type||Live attenuated Vaccine||Killed vaccine|
|Bacterial||Tuberculosis (BCG)||Cholera Typhoid Whooping cough|
|Viral||Small Pox Rubella Measles Yellow fever Mumps||Poliomyelitis Influenza Rabies|
Vaccines: Source, Storage and routes of administration
|Types of Vaccines||Source||Storage and Route of Administration|
|Cholera||Vibrio cholera||2–8°C and By Sub|
|Vaccine||(2 strains–Inaba||cutaneous route|
|BCG Vaccine||Bacillus of Calmette||2–8°C and by|
|(Freeze-Dried)||and Guerin strain||Intra cutaneous|
|Small Pox||Vaccinia/Variola virus||2–8°C Puncture|
|Yellow fever||17 D strain of yellow||2–8°C and By Sub|
|vaccine||fever virus||cutaneous route|
|Rabies vaccine||Rabies virus||2–8°C and By|
|(Freeze-Dried)||S.C. or I.M route|
Besides the active vaccine itself, the following excipients are commonly present in vaccine preparations:
- Aluminum salts (Aluminium Sulphate) or gels are added as adjuvants. Adjuvants are added to promote an earlier, more potent response, and more persistent im- mune response to the vaccine; they allow for a lower vaccine dosage.
- Antibiotics are added to some vaccines to prevent the growth of bacteria during production and storage of the vaccine.
- Egg protein is present in influenza and yellow fever vaccines as they are prepared using chicken eggs. Other proteins may be present.
- Formaldehyde is used to inactivate bacterial products for toxoid vaccines. Formaldehyde is also used to kill unwanted viruses and bacteria that might contaminate the vaccine during production.
- Monosodium glutamate (MSG) and 2-phenoxyethanol are used as stabilizers in a few vaccines to help the vaccine remain unchanged when the vaccine is exposed to heat, light, acidity, or humidity.
- Thimerosal is a mercury-containing preservative that is added to vials of vaccine that contain more than one dose to prevent contamination and growth of potentially harmful bacteria.
The Pearson Guide to the GPAT and Other Competitive Examinations in Pharmacy, Third Edition by Umang Shah et al.
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