Chickenpox Varicella Zoster Virus
Causative agent- Varicella Zoster Virus (V-Z Virus) [Human (alpha) herpes virus -3]
It varies from 7-21 days.
Mode of Transmission
- Droplet infection
- Droplet nuclei
- Discharge from the ruptured lesion of the skin (Personal Contact).
4. It can cross the placental barrier and infect the feotus (Congenital varicella).
5. Fomites (Cups, handkerchiefs, toys, thermometers, etc.) freshly contaminated by nasopharyngeal Secretion of patients.
1. Fever sometimes nausea.
2. Appearance of rash on trunk, face, limbs
3. Pustular (filled with pus) lesions
4. Malaise (A general feeling of being unwell/ discomfort)
5. Loss of appetite
6. After the rash appears:
a) Spots to rash covering the whole body
b) Spot to cluster (small, red and itchy) on the face, limb, chest and stomach.
c) Blister on the top of the spot.
d) Clouding: within 48 hours blisters cloud over and start drying out. A crust (harder outer layer)
e) Healing within 10 days and the crust falls off on its own.
Prevention & Control-
1. Varicella Zoster immunoglobulin (VZ Ig) is given within 72 hrs of exposure in doses of 1.25 to 5 ml intramuscularly.
2. Avoid dehydration by drinking plenty of water.
3. Mouth Soreness: it can be avoided by:
a) Using sugar-free popsicles. (Candy ice cream sort)
b) If spots appear in the mouth, avoid salty and spicy food.
c) If chewing is painful, use soup but avoid hot soup.
a) Minimize scratching to decrease the scarring.
b) Use calamine lotion for topical application and oatmeal bath.
c) Wear loose clothing.
d) Keeping fingernails clean and short.
5. Notification and Isolation of suspect for 7 days after the appearance of the rash.
6. Disinfection of articles contaminated by the patient’s nose and throat discharge.
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