Measles Rubeola Viral
Measles (Rubeola) : (Viral)
Measles (rubeola) is a serious disease and is sometimes called “hard,” “red,” or “seven-day measles.”
German measles (rubella) is a mild, three-day infection that seldom leads to complications in children.
Causative Agent: Rubeola virus ( RNA virus of paramyxovirus group) family Paramyxoviridae present in nasopharyngeal secretions and in the blood of infected persons.Commonest infections in children up to the age of six years. one attack confers a high degree of immunity. if a mother had an attack of measles, she confers passive immunity to her infant for six months.
Incubation Period: It is between 10-14 days.
Modes of Transmission:
1. Droplet infection: Most commonly spread by droplets released by patient or carrier since the causative agent is present in the nasopharyngeal secretions and in the blood of infected persons. the virus cannot survive outside the human body.
2. Transmission also takes place through secretions (sneezing, coughing, talking, kissing etc.)
3. Fomites : (Cups, handkerchiefs, toys, thermometers etc.) contaminated by nasopharyngeal Secretion of patients or carriers can also spread this infection.
Signs and Symptoms:
They are divided into two stages:
- Pre-eruptive stage
- Eruptive stage
Watery and red eyes
Hoarseness of voice due to laryngitis
Koplik’s spot (small bluish-white spot on a red base)
It begins on the 4th to the 5th day of illness. Red spots on the face, neck and behind the ears then rashes spread rapidly all over the body due to blood-borne virus in the skin when the rashes subside after 5-7 days leaving a brownish pigmentation on the skin which lasts longer.
Prevention and Control:
- Early diagnosis and notification to health authorities.
- Isolation of the patient as soon as the signs and symptoms appear.
- Disinfect the discharges of the nose and throat of the patient.
- Live attenuated tissue culture freeze dried vaccine is used to immunize against measles.A single dose of 0.5ml of reconstituted vaccine is administered subcutaneously in childrens of 9-12 month age group.
- The vaccine and its diluting fluid should be stored at 4-8 degree centigrade.
- When measles vaccines can’t be administered due to ongoing steroidal therapy, history of allergy or in case childrens who are ill immunoglobulins can be administered to prevent the infection.
- Protect the eyes of the patient from light and glare.
- For prevention of secondary infections antibiotics can also be administered.
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