September 30, 2023

Ill effects of infant milk substitutes and bottle feeding 

Ill effects of infant milk substitutes and bottle feeding

Chapter 2 Notes 2.1 Demography and Family Planning 2.2 Mother and child health 2.3 Importance of breastfeeding, 2.4 Ill effects of infant milk substitutes and bottle feeding 2.5 Overview of Vaccines, 2.6 Types of immunity 2.7 Immunization 2.8 Effect of Environment on Health 2.8.1 Water pollution Importance of safe drinking water, waterborne diseases 2.8.2 Air pollution 2.8.3 Noise pollution 2.8.4 Sewage and solid waste disposal 2.8.5 Occupational illnesses 2.8.6 Environmental pollution due to pharmaceuticals 2.8.7 Psychosocial Pharmacy: Drugs of misuse and abuse – psychotropics, narcotics, alcohol, tobacco products.


In some conditions mother is not able to breastfeed due to reasons (low milk production, severe disease condition etc.) then substitute or alternative milk are the one way to fulfil the baby needs other than the mother milk. Substitute milk is a synthetic form of liquid/powder nutrition designed to closely mimic the nutrient quality and composition of breast milk. It provides a similar amount of calories, fat, and proteins as breast milk.

In dire situations, you may offer pasteurized cow, sheep, or goat milk (full fat) and alternative milk (pea protein or soy are best) for 2-3 days as long as these are not the primary source of nutrition.


  • Almost equal to the breast milk like( color, smell, taste, texture
    • Provide all the nutrition(calorie, protein, fat, vitamin, minerals)
    • Do not cause any allergic reaction.
    • Easily digestible for infant.
    • Easily absorbable for infant.
    • Easily available and low economy.

Disease/ill-related to substituted milk.

  • Substituted milk some time causes the severe allergic reaction in infants and cause eczema, rashes.
    • Some infants are not able to digest the substitute milk, so it cause the diarrhea and increase the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC).

Bottle feeding

Bottle feeding is a system, which provides an identical condition/environment that is similar to breastfeeding and nourishes the baby by providing nutrient full supplements.

During the bottle feeding, hold your baby in a proper manner and take the bottle to come close to the baby and incline the bottle at an angle (45-90).

Some precautions/activities are required for bottle feeding.

  • Proper cleaning and hygiene required for the bottle feeding.
  • To ensure the feeding supplement, which are healthy for baby or not.
  • To ensure the feeding bottle (plastic, stainless steel) are compatible with the feeding supplement.
  • Try that as much as the feeding is made , give the baby drink immediately and do not leave it for later because supplement are easily deteriorate by the environment.
  • Proper condition and proper position are required for the best feeding.

F Y D Pharm Notes, Books, Syllabus, PDF, Videos

S. No.Name of the Course
1.ER20-11T Pharmaceutics Theory
2.ER20-11P Pharmaceutics Practical
3.ER20-12T Pharmaceutical Chemistry Theory
4.ER20-12P Pharmaceutical Chemistry Practical
5.ER20-13T Pharmacognosy Theory
6.ER20-13P Pharmacognosy Practical
7.ER20-14T Human Anatomy & Physiology Theory
8.ER20-14P Human Anatomy & Physiology Practical
9.ER20-15T Social Pharmacy Theory
10.ER20-15P Social Pharmacy Practical
F Y D Pharm Syllabus

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