Chapter 2 Social Pharmacy Notes 2.1 Demography and Family Planning, 2.2 Mother and child health, 2.3 Importance of breastfeeding, 2.4 Ill effects of infant milk substitutes and bottle feeding 2.5 Overview of Vaccines, 2.6 Types of immunity 2.7 Immunization 2.8 Effect of Environment on Health 2.8.1 Water pollution 18.104.22.168 Importance of safe drinking water, waterborne diseases 2.8.2 Air pollution 2.8.3 Noise pollution 2.8.4 Sewage and solid waste disposal 2.8.5 Occupational illnesses 2.8.6 Environmental pollution due to pharmaceuticals 2.8.7 Psychosocial Pharmacy: Drugs of misuse and abuse – psychotropics, narcotics, alcohol, tobacco products.
Table of contents
Composition of air :
The components of pure air may change from place to place but roughly it consist of Nitrogen:78%, Oxygen: 21%, Carbon dioxide: 0.03 to 0.05 % where the remaining part contain of some inert gases, water vapours, suspended impurities such as micro-organism, dust, soot etc. along with it various impurities like Dust, fumes, vapours, harmful industrial gases and natural pollutants like pollens, fungi, bacteria etc. are also present in the air which are responsible for making the air impure.
Sources of Air pollution :
The air is rendered impure by
1. Respiration of human beings and animals
2. Combustion of coal, gas, oil etc.( oxides of sulphur and oxides of carbon )
3. Decomposition of organic matter (vegetables and organic matter )
4. Traffic, industries – which give off dust, fumes, vapours, harmful gases
5. Industrial and domestic combustion of coal, oil and other fuel is the source of smoke, dust, and sulphur dioxide.( particulate matter or gases such as co2, co .)
6. Chemical industries, textile industries, oil refineries, fertilizer factories etc contribute to air pollution. (Insecticides and Pesticides)
7. Automobiles like heavy and light vehicles, aircraft, trains and other forms of transport contribute to air pollution by emitting hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, lead, nitrogen oxide and particulate matter. Strong sunlight converts some of these hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides into photochemical pollutants of oxidizing nature.
Effects of air pollution :
1. Air pollution causes several effects on health and it has contributed to increasing in morbidity and mortality.
2. Respiratory tract disorders are common such as asthma, bronchitis and lung cancer.
3. Air pollution also affects the respiratory system of animals as well as the toxicity of chemicals like fluorides.
4. It also causes retardation of growth in plants, spotting, burning of leaves etc.
5. Ill effects on organs such as heart, kidney, liver, skin, eyes etc.
6. Beyond its effects on plants, animals and humans air also causes corrosion of metals, building materials etc. because of which repair and maintenance issues arise.
Prevention and Control of air pollution:
1. Prevention at origin to stop toxic substances released from the source itself by providing enclosures.
2. The fuel sources as wood and coal should be replaced by natural gas or electricity which is non-polluting.
3. Regular checkup of automobile vehicles for PUC as their exhaust is a major source of pollution, under the implementation of legislation as “Smoke Nuisance Act”.
4. Very tall design of chimneys for industries so that gaseous exhaust is not released immediately surrounding the biosphere.
5. Neutralizers, cyclone chambers, filters, electrostatic precipitators can be used at release points of air pollutants.
6. Pollutants in the air are diluted by promoting proper ventilation and plantation so as to decrease the detrimental effects of air pollution.
7. Disinfection of air can also be done by various techniques like mechanical. chemical, UV radiation treatment & air conditioning etc.
For more details on Noise Pollutions
For more details on Water Pollutions
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