February 22, 2024




To study the plant cell and its inclusion with the help of a chart or a model

Requirement: Chart or model of a cell.



The smallest living units of structure and function are cells. There are many different types of human cells, though they all have certain similarities. Each type of cell is made of chemicals and carries out specific chemical reactions. The basic living unit of the body is the cell. Each organ is an aggregate of many different cells held together by intercellular supporting structures.

Each type of cell is specially adapted to perform one or a few particular functions. For instance, the red blood cells, numbering 25 trillion in each human being, transport oxygen from the lungs to the tissues. Although the red cells are the most abundant of any single type of cell in the body, there are about 75 trillion additional cells of other types that perform functions different from those of the red cell. The entire body, then, contains about 100 trillion cells.

Although many cells of the body often differ markedly from one another, all of them have certain basic characteristics that are alike. For instance, in all cells, oxygen reacts with carbohydrates, fat, and protein to release the energy required for cell function. Further, the general chemical mechanisms for changing nutrients into energy are basically the same in all cells, and all cells deliver end products of their chemical reactions into the surrounding fluids

Almost all cells also have the ability to reproduce additional cells of their own kind. Fortunately, when cells of a particular type are destroyed from one cause or another, the remaining cells of this type usually generate new cells until the supply is replenished.

Cell InclusionsStructure/ Functions
Cell membraneThe cell membrane keeps the cell together by containing the organelles within it. Cell membranes are selectively permeable, allowing materials to move both into and outside of the cell.  
CytoplasmThe cytoplasm is a jelly-like substance that is sometimes described as “the cell-matrix”. It holds the organelles in place within the cell.  
Nuclear membraneThe nuclear membrane separates the nucleus and the nucleolus from the rest of the contents of the cell.
Nuclear PoreNuclear pores permit substances (such as nutrients, waste, and cellular information) to pass both into, and out of the nucleus.
NucleolusThe nucleolus is responsible for the synthesis of precursors of the ribosome and their storage.
NucleusThe nucleus is the “Control Centre” of the cell, which contains DNA (genetic information) in the form of genes, and also information for the formation of proteins.
Mitochondria“Mitochondria” is a plural term, which is appropriate as these are not found alone. The number of mitochondria within cells varies with the type of cell. These are the energy producers within the cell. They generate energy in the form of Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) Generally, the more energy a cell needs, the more mitochondria it contains.
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER)“Rough” indicates that there are ribosomes attached to the surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum. The endoplasmic reticulum is where proteins and lipids are produced within the cell and are also concerned with the transport of these materials within the cell.  
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER)“Smooth” indicates that there are no ribosomes attached to the surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum. The endoplasmic reticulum is where lipids are produced within the cell and are also concerned with the transport of these materials within the cell.  
RibosomesRibosomes interpret cellular information from the nucleus and so synthesize appropriate proteins as required.
LysosomesLysosomes are tiny sacs filled with enzymes that enable the cell to utilize nutrients. Lysosomes also destroy the cell after it has died, though there are some circumstances (diseases/conditions) in which lysosomes begin to ‘break down’ living cells.  
Golgi ApparatusThe Golgi apparatus of a cell is usually connected to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) because it stores and then transports the proteins produced in the ER. It also secretes the mature products into Golgi vesicles.
CentrosomesThe centrosomes contain the centrioles, which are responsible for cell division.

Remedial Biology Practicals

  1. Introduction to experiments in biology a) Study of Microscope b) Section cutting techniques c) Mounting and staining d) Permanent slide preparation 2. Study of cell and its inclusions 3. Study of Stem, Root, Leaf, seed, fruit, flower and their modifications 4. Detailed study of frog by using computer models 5. Microscopic study and identification of tissues pertinent to Stem, Root Leaf, seed, fruit and flower 6. Identification of bones 7. Determination of blood group 8. Determination of blood pressure 9. Determination of tidal volume

First Year B Pharm Notes, Syllabus, Books, PDF Subjectwise/Topicwise

First Year B Pharm Notes, Syllabus, Books, PDF Subjectwise/Topicwise

F Y B Pharm Sem-IS Y B Pharm Sem-II
BP101T Human Anatomy and Physiology I TheoryBP201T Human Anatomy and Physiology II – Theory
BP102T Pharmaceutical Analysis I TheoryBP202T Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry I Theory
BP103T Pharmaceutics I TheoryBP203T Biochemistry – Theory
BP104T Pharmaceutical Inorganic Chemistry TheoryBP204T Pathophysiology – Theory
BP105T Communication skills TheoryBP205T Computer Applications in Pharmacy Theory
BP106RBT Remedial BiologyBP206T Environmental sciences – Theory
BP106RMT Remedial Mathematics TheoryBP207P Human Anatomy and Physiology II Practical
BP107P Human Anatomy and Physiology PracticalBP208P Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry I Practical
BP108P Pharmaceutical Analysis I PracticalBP209P Biochemistry Practical
BP109P Pharmaceutics I PracticalBP210P Computer Applications in Pharmacy Practical
BP110P Pharmaceutical Inorganic Chemistry Practical
BP111P Communication skills Practical
BP112RBP Remedial Biology Practical

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