Types of bases of suppositories
The base of a suppository provides a means of delivering the active ingredient to the target site and also serves as a mold for shaping the suppository. There are several types of bases of suppositories, including:
- Fatty Bases: Fatty bases are composed of vegetable oils, animal fats, or synthetic fats such as glyceryl monostearate. These bases are often used for drugs that are insoluble in water and require a lipophilic environment for absorption. Examples of fatty bases include cocoa butter, hydrogenated vegetable oils, and glycerinated gelatin.
- Water-Soluble Bases: Water-soluble bases are composed of water-soluble polymers such as polyethylene glycols (PEGs) or glycerin. These bases are often used for drugs that are water-soluble or require a hydrophilic environment for absorption. Examples of water-soluble bases include PEGs, glycerinated gelatin, and agar.
- Combination Bases: Combination bases are composed of a combination of fatty and water-soluble components. These bases are often used for drugs that require a combination of lipophilic and hydrophilic environments for absorption. Examples of combination bases include polyethylene glycol and cocoa butter, and polyethylene glycol and glycerin.
- Miscellaneous Bases: Miscellaneous bases include those that do not fit into the above categories, such as suppositories made of gelatin, propylene glycol, or silicone. These bases are often used for specific applications and have unique properties that make them suitable for certain drugs or patient populations.
The choice of base for a suppository depends on various factors such as the physicochemical properties of the drug, the desired rate of drug release, and patient acceptance.
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