February 23, 2024

Figures of Speech

Figures of Speech

Aim:
To study and learn figures of speech.

A figure of speech may be defined as “a departure or deviation or shift from the plain and ordinary mode of speaking for the sake of greater effect”.

Classification of figure of speech:

  1. Similarity or Resemblance – simile, metaphor
  2. Contrast difference or surprise – antithesis, epigram
  3. Association or contiguity – metonymy, synecdoche
  4. Imagination – hyperbole, apostrophe
  5. Indirectness of speech – irony, innuendo

  1. Figures based on resemblance

A) SIMILE
A simile is likeness between two things or events stated full.
A word of comparison as like, as, so etc.

B) METAPHOR
A metaphor is implied comparison. In simile the comparison is expressed, but in a metaphor such words as like, as, are not used.
Example
The road was a ribbon of moonlight.

  1. Figures based on contrast or difference

A) ANTITHESIS
It is the figure in which one word or idea is set against another.
example – Many are called but few are chosen.

B) EPIGRAM
Epigram is an apparent contraindication in language, which by causing a temporary shock, catches our attention to some important meaning hidden in it.
example – The child is father of the man.

  1. Figures based on association

A) METONYMY
It is also referred to as the figure which changes the name.
example – The house, for the members of parliament.

B) SYNECDOCHE
In this one name is substituted for another, whose meaning is more or less similar to its own.

  1. Figures based on the imagination

A) PERSONIFICATION
It is a figure by which non – living objects and abstract notions are spoken as living human beings having special characteristics of man.
example – Truth has a gentle breast.

B) APOSTROPHE
It is a direct address to dead, to the absent or to a personified object or idea. The use of this figure gives animation and increased
importance to expression. The absent are here addressed as if present.
example – O liberty, what crimes have been committed in your name?

C) HYPERBOLE
It is a figure by which things are represented as greater or loss than they really occur. I beg a million pardons.

  1. Figures based on indirections of speech

A) INNUENDO
It is an art which enable us to make damaging remarks without any direct accusations.
We must be well off by now, because although he received only a small salary be had charge of the cash.
This author’s book will live at least a year.

B) IRONY
This figure of speech consists in saying the opposite of what is went, though the words are not to be taken literally. It is the figure of praise intending censure. It lends both interest and surprise to the expression.
I shall lose no time in reading your book.
I don’t believe it ever entered his wise heads

EXERCISE FOR STUDENT

Identify the figure of speech used in following sentence

  1. He has a heart of gold – Metaphor
  2. Dale’s smile was as bright as the sun shine – simile
  3. Life is a journey; travel it well – Metaphor
  4. A wicked whisper came and changed my life – Personification
  5. Men’s words are bullets that their enemies take up and make use of against them – Metaphor
  6. He roared with the force of a thousand lions – Hyperbole
  7. The theater is his home – Metaphor
  8. There had been no rain for months and all the crops were death. Some parts of the farm were beginning to look like a desert – simile
  9. After a good height sleep, I felt like a million dollars – simile & hyperbole
  10. Everyone wanted ken on the swim team because he could swim like a fish – simile & hyperbole

Report:
Thus figures of speech was studied and learned.


First Year B Pharm Notes, Syllabus, Books, PDF Subjectwise/Topicwise

F Y B Pharm Sem-IS Y B Pharm Sem-II
BP101T Human Anatomy and Physiology I TheoryBP201T Human Anatomy and Physiology II – Theory
BP102T Pharmaceutical Analysis I TheoryBP202T Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry I Theory
BP103T Pharmaceutics I TheoryBP203T Biochemistry – Theory
BP104T Pharmaceutical Inorganic Chemistry TheoryBP204T Pathophysiology – Theory
BP105T Communication skills TheoryBP205T Computer Applications in Pharmacy Theory
BP106RBT Remedial BiologyBP206T Environmental sciences – Theory
BP106RMT Remedial Mathematics TheoryBP207P Human Anatomy and Physiology II Practical
BP107P Human Anatomy and Physiology PracticalBP208P Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry I Practical
BP108P Pharmaceutical Analysis I PracticalBP209P Biochemistry Practical
BP109P Pharmaceutics I PracticalBP210P Computer Applications in Pharmacy Practical
BP110P Pharmaceutical Inorganic Chemistry Practical
BP111P Communication skills Practical
BP112RBP Remedial Biology Practical

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