Identification of appendicular bones
The aim of the experiment is to study the human appendicular skeletal system.
Skeleton system model
It is situated on the lateral side which actually extends outwards from the principal axis. The appendicular skeleton system consists of a pectoral girdle (shoulder girdle), pelvic girdle (hip girdle), bones of upper limbs or arms and bones of lower limbs or legs.
Each pectoral girdle consists of two bones: 1 clavicle and 1 scapula.
It is a flat bone consisting of a sharp ridge, the spine and a triangular body. The end of the spine projects as a flattened and expanded process called the acromion. This process articulates with the clavicle. At the lateral end of the scapula is a projection of the anterior surface called the coracoid process which gives attachment to muscles and ligaments. At the point where the superior and lateral borders of the scapula meet there is the lateral angle which presents a shallow articular surface termed a glenoid cavity into which the head of the humerus is articulated.
The body of the scapula presents two surfaces- i) costal surface which is concave and marked by ridges and ii) dorsal surface which is divided into two parts by the spine into the upper small supraspinous fossa and lower area forming infraspinous fossa.
It is also called the collar bone placed horizontally in front of the root of the neck and connects the scapula with the sternum. It is “S” shaped or concavoconvex. It has a shaft and two ends called an acromion end ( attached to the acromion process of the scapula) and a sternal end (attached to the clavicular notch of the manubrium of the sternum). The acromial end is flat and the sternal end is quadrangular.
FIGURE: Showing the scapula
FIGURE: Showing the clavicle
Functions of pectoral girdle:
In addition to providing the glenoid cavity for articulating with the head of the humerus, the pectoral girdle is also meant for attachment of the arm muscles.
BONES OF THE ARMS
Each arm consists of the following 30 bones:
1 humerus, 1 radius, 1 ulna, 8 carpal bones, 5 metacarpal bones, 5 digits(14 phalanges).
It is the longest and strongest bone of the upper extremity. It presents a proximal end, shaft and distal end. The proximal end consists of the head, neck, and greater and lesser tubercle. The Upper rounded end of the humerus is called the head and is covered by hyaline cartilage which articulates into the glenoid cavity of the pectoral girdle. The neck is the constricted part near the head.
Between the neck and head, there are two projections the greater and lesser tubercles. The distal end of the bone presents two articular surfaces, the rounded capitulum lying laterally and the rectangular trochlea medially. On the anterior aspect of the bone there is the presence of fossa just above the articular surfaces ( capitulum and trochlea) called as radio fossa and coronoid fossa and the deep fossa present posteriorly is called as olecranon fossa.
FIGURE: Showing The Humerus
It is a bone of the forearm that lies medially to the radius. It is longer than radius. It presents a proximal end, shaft and distal end. The proximal end looks like a hook consisting of two processes lnown as olecranon and coronoid process. There is also two articular areas called as trochlear and radial notch. The head of the radius articulates with the radial notch of the humerus. The distal end has a smooth surface laterally for articulation with radius and a styloid process which gives attachment to ligaments.
It is the lateral bone of the forearm and has a proximal end, shaft and distal end. The upper end includes the head and neck. The head is disc-shaped and its flat surface articulates with the capitulum of the humerus. The neck is the constricted part below the head. The distal of the bone is expanded. It articulates with carpal bones.
FIGURE: Showing Ulna and Radius
Carpal, metacarpal and phalanges:
Each wrist is composed of eight carpals which are arranged into two rows:
scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum and pisiform in proximal row and
trapezium, trapezoid, capitate and hamate in distal row.
Metacarpal bones are five in number and form the structure of the palm of the hand. They have a proximal end which articulates with carpal bones, a middle shaft, and a distal end which articulate with phalanges.
There are fourteen phalanges arranged so that three on each finger and two on the thumb. Phalangeal formula: 2,3,3,3,3. The single bone of the phalanges is known as the phalanx.
FIGURE: Showing carpal, metacarpal, phalanges
Functions of arm bones:
The arms give support to the shoulders by articulating the head of the humerus with the glenoid cavity of the pectoral girdle.
The pelvis or pelvic girdle is formed by two hip bones (innominate bones). Each innominate bone consists of three separate bones, the ilium, the ischium and the pubis. On its outer surface, it has a deep depression called the acetabulum to which the head of the femur is articulated forming the hip joint. The acetabulum is formed by the ilium, ischium and pubis
Ilium is a flattened plate above the acetabulum. The upper border is called as the iliac crest. The ilium has one large depression, the greater sciatic notch. The ischium is the part below and behind the acetabulum. The pubis is the part in front and below the acetabulum. The ischium also has one small depression the lesser sciatic notch. There is also present the obturator foramen.
FIGURE: Showing Pelvic Girdle
Functions of pelvic girdle:
Apart from articulating with the legs, the pelvic girdle supports the posterior region of the trunk. It provides a surface for the attachment of the muscles of the legs. The pelvic girdle protects the soft organs present in the pelvic cavity of this region.
BONES OF THE LEGS
Each leg consists of 30 bones: 1 femur, 1 tibia, 1 fibula, 1patella (knee cap), 7 tarsal bones, 5 metatarsal bones, 5 digits (14 phalanges). Phalangeal formula: 2,3,3,3,3.
The femur is the longest and strongest bone of the body. Its upper end has a rounded head, a constricted neck and a greater and lesser trochanter. The Head of the femur is smooth and has a rough pit called fovea and it articulates into the acetabulum of the pelvic girdle. There is a presence of a neck which joint with the long shaft. The greater and lesser trochanter is present at the junction of the neck and shaft. The lower end is divisible into two condyles- lateral and medial condyles. In between the condyles, there is a depression referred to as intercondylar fossa.
FIGURE: Showing Femur Bone
It is a flat, sesamoid bone. It is roughly triangular in shape.
The tibia is longer, thicker and lies more medially and in front and it is the second longest bone of the skeleton. The upper proximal end is broad and has two condyles and the lower distal end is smooth and flat and forms the ankle joint with the talus.
It is shorter, thinner and located more laterally and deeply. The upper end that is head articulates with the lateral condyle of the tibia. The lower end is articulated with the lower extremity of the tibia.
FIGURE: Showing Tibia and Fibula
Tarsal, metatarsal and phalanges: Each ankle is composed of seven tarsals which are calcaneum, talus, cuboid, navicular and first, second, and third cuneiforms. The metatarsal bones are five in number. The phalanges are 14 in number arranges as three on each of the toes and two on each great toe. Phalangeal formula: 2,3,3,3,3.
FIGURE; Showing tarsal, metatarsals and phalanges
Functions of leg bones:
The leg bones are involved mainly in propulsion and support. The weight of the body is also carried by the leg bones.
Human Anatomy and Physiology Practical Syllabus
- Study of a compound microscope.
- Microscopic study of epithelial and connective tissue
- Microscopic study of muscular and nervous tissue
- Identification of axial bones
- Identification of appendicular bones
- Introduction to hemocytometry.
- Enumeration of white blood cell (WBC) count
- Enumeration of total red blood corpuscles (RBC) count
- Determination of the bleeding time
- Determination of clotting time
- Estimation of haemoglobin content
- Determination of blood group.
- Determination of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR).
- Determination of heart rate and pulse rate.
- Recording of blood pressure.
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