February 22, 2024

Determination of stomatal number: Pharmacognosy Practical Lab Manual

Determination of stomatal number: Pharmacognosy Practical Lab Manual

Background

Stoma (plural-stomata) is a minute epidermal opening covered by two kidney-shaped guard cells in dicot leaves. These guard cells, in turn, are surrounded by epidermal (subsidiary) cells. Stomata perform the functions of gaseous exchange and transpiration in plants. The nature of the stomata and the stomatal index and stomatal number are important diagnostic characteristics of dicot leaves.

The stomatal number is defined as the average number of stomata per sq mm of the epidermis of the leaf. The actual number of stomata per sq mm may vary for the leaves of the same plant grown in a different environment or under different climatic conditions. However, it is shown that the ratio of the number of stomata to the total number of epidermal cells in a given area of the epidermis is fairly constant for any age of the plant and under different climatic conditions.

Stomatal index is the percentage which the number of stomata forms to the total number of epidermal cells, each stoma being counted as one cell. The Stomatal index can be calculated by using the following equation:

Stomatal Index = S x 100/E+S

Where S= Number of stomata per unit area E= Number of epidermal cells in the same unit area

Whilst stomatal number varies considerably with the age of the leaf and due to changes in environmental conditions, the stomatal index is relatively constant and therefore, of diagnostic significance for a given species. It is employed for the differentiation of allied or closely related species of the same genus in air-dried, as well as fresh conditions

Requirements

Compound microscope Camera lucida Drawing board Micro slides Cover glasses Forceps Spirit lamp Small watch glass Blade Cello tape, drawing sheet Dark coloured pencil with sharp lead Chloral hydrate solution

Procedure

1. Preparation of lamina

Take a mature leaf. If the leaf is small, the whole leaf may be taken and if the leaf is large, cut 5 mm square pieces from the middle portion between the lamina and midrib.

Fresh leaf

  • Sometimes the epidermis can be easily peeled off in thick leaves by breaking it into pieces by sheering action. Separate the epidermis and treat it with chloral hydrate.
  • Cut a number of 5mm pieces from the middle portion between the lamina and midrib.
  • Boil with chloral hydrate in a test tube and place in a water bath. The epidermis separates out. Carefully place the epidermis on a slide with the help of a brush along with 1-2 drops of chloral hydrate; cool and then place a cover glass. OR
  • Prepare an imprint of the epidermis: Take a little piece of gelatin gel (50%) with the help of a needle. Smear it on a hot slide, place a fresh leaf and slightly press the leaf. Invert the slide and cool it under a water tap till the gel is solidified.
  • Then the leaf is removed. This leaves an imprint of the stomata and epidermal cells on the gel.
  • Trace the epidermal cells and stomata with the help of camera lucida.

Dry leaf

  • Heat the leaf with chloral hydrate in a test tube in a water bath for 30 min.
  • Cut the leaf into two pieces, and observe under the microscope to see whether the stomata are present on both surfaces or one.
  • Place the cleared leaf with the veins facing down. Then the upper epidermis will be visible.
  • Place the other half with veins facing upwards. Then the lower epidermis will be visible.
  • Add two drops of glycerin and place a cover glass.
  • Label the slides as “upper” and “lower” and trace the epidermal cells and stomata.

If the leaf is too thick and dark, separate the epidermis are given below

  • Clear the leaf with chloral hydrate as given in step no.1. cut the leaf into two halves.
  • Place one half with the upper surface facing downwards.
  • Carefully scrape off the upper tissue, with the edge of a razor blade, without disturbing the upper epidermis. Clean it with a
  • brush dipped in chloral hydrate solution.
  • The layer of cells remaining is the upper epidermis. Turn the layer upside to trace the cells.
  • Repeat the procedure with the second half, this time placing the lower surface facing downwards, proceed as given in step no. 3. and 4.

Usually, herbs and small shrubs have stomata on both surfaces. In tree species, stomata are present on the lower surface.

More stomata are present on the lower surface in the dorsiventral leaf, almost the same number in the isobilateral leaf.


2. Tracing of cells

In this experiment, the number has to be determined per square millimetre

  • Adjust the drawing board, if a swift camera-lucida is used. It is not necessary to adjust the angle with Abbe’s camera lucida.
  • With the help of a stage micrometre, draw a line of 1mm using 10×10 magnification on a drawing sheet and draw a 10 cm square on that line (1 mm =10 cm) if the magnification is correct.
  • Replace the stage micrometre with a prepared slide of the leaf as given for the stomatal index.
  • With the help of camera lucida mark the number of stomata in the square.
  • Count the stomata. That gives the number of stomata per sq. mm.
  • Take 25 reading and calculate the average.
  • Note the side, for which the stomatal number is determined. Direct counting of stomata can also be done by a squared eyepiece micrometre if the drawings are not required

CONCLUSION

Stomatal number and stomatal index of supplied leaf is ___________                                        

REFERENCES

  1. Kokate CK, Practical Pharmacognosy, 4 edition, VallabhPrakashan. Delhi; 1994: 117-118.
  • Joshi S, Aeri V. Practical Pharmacognosy, 1 edition, Frank Bros. & Co. New Delhi; 2009: 208-09.

Second Year B Pharm Notes, Syllabus, Books, PDF Subjectwise/Topicwise

S Y B Pharm Sem IIIS Y B Pharm Sem IV
BP301T Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry II TheoryBP401T Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry III Theory
BP302T Physical Pharmaceutics I TheoryBP402T Medicinal Chemistry I Theory
BP303T Pharmaceutical Microbiology TheoBP403T Physical Pharmaceutics II Theory
BP304T Pharmaceutical Engineering TheoryBP404T Pharmacology I Theory
BP305P Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry II PracticalBP405T Pharmacognosy I Theory
BP306P Physical Pharmaceutics I PracticalBP406P Medicinal Chemistry I Practical
BP307P Pharmaceutical Microbiology PracticalBP407P Physical Pharmaceutics II Practical
BP308P Pharmaceutical Engineering PracticalBP408P Pharmacology I Practical
BP409P Pharmacognosy I Practical

Suggested readings: