Basics of nutrition – Macronutrients and Micronutrients
|1.||Carbohydrates||1) Sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose, lactose, maltose)2) Starch3) Cellulose.||The main constituent of the diet. The main source of energy. (4 kcal/gm.) Essential for oxidation of fats. Required for the synthesis of some non-essential amino acids.|
|2.||Proteins||Animal sources: |
Milk, meat, egg and fish.
Pulses, cereals, beans and nuts.
|1. Growth and repair of body cells and tissues.2. Synthesis of the hormones, plasma proteins and antibodies (Immunoglobulin’s), Hemoglobin, enzymes.3. Bodybuilding.4. Provision of energy: Spare amount of proteins can be used for the production of heat and energy. (Secondary Function).|
|3.||Fats||Animal sources: Milk, meat, egg, fish, ghee and butter.|
Vegetable sources: They are vegetable oils obtained from groundnut, sesame, coconut And mustard.
Other sources are:
Minute quantities of fats are found in other food such as cereals, pulses, nuts And vegetables.
|most rich source of energy.2. It stores and transports fat-soluble vitamins as Vit. A, D, E and K. 3. It provides thermal insulation to the body as it is a bad conductor of heat. 4. It protects important organs by surrounding them and absorbing mechanical shocks. 5. One gram of fats upon complete oxidation provides 9.1 KCal energy. 6. It in the form of myelin sheath provides a coat for white nerve fibers. 7. It forms a storage form of energy as sub-dermal fats.|
|4.||Vitamin B1 (thiamin)||Peas, Beans, Oatmeal, pea nuts, Vegetables and fruits.|
|1. Proper utilization of carbohydrates 2. Nutrition of nerve cells|
|5.||Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)||Rich Sources: Liver, Red meat, eggs and kidney Moderate sources: Milk, Milk products, Leafy green, vegetables and beer Poor sources: Cereals and pulses||1. development of RBC’S|
|6.||Vitamin C ( ascorbic acid )||Amla, fresh citrus fruits, tomato, guava, cabbage, turnip, fresh milk, fresh meat.||1) It is necessary for tissue oxidation physiology. 2) It is needed for collagen synthesis of connective tissues 3) It is required for proper iron absorption via GIT4) It acts as a coenzyme for enzyme-catalyzed hydroxylation reaction Eg. In the formation of hydroxyproline from proline.|
|7.||Vitamin E||1. Important biological antioxidant. 2. Prevents oxidation of unsaturated fatty acid.3. An important role in keeping cell membrane integrity. 4. Keep hair and skin healthy. 5. Maintain all muscular tissues healthy. 6. Probably it functions in reproduction physiology (anti-sterility vitamin) as revealed in experimental animals.|
|8.||Vitamin B12(Cyanocobalamin)||1. development of RBC’S|
|9.||Vitamin –A||Milk and milk products, eggs, fish, green and orange /yellow vegetables.||Maintains healthy epithelial tissues, maintains normal vision|
|10.||Iodine||Sea food as fishes , sea salt , sea weeds, cod liver oil, milk, meat, vegetables etc.||1. It is necessary for the synthesis of thyroid hormone.2. Minute amounts are required for growth, development and well being.|
|11.||Iron||Jaggery, green leafy vegetables, dry fruits, legumes, nuts are veg sources. Liver, meat, fish, poultry birds are animal sources.||1. It is necessary for the synthesis of haemoglobin 2. It is required for brain development and muscle activity.3. It is needed for the regulation of body temperature.4. It has a central function in oxygen transport and cell respiration.|
|12.||Calcium||Milk and milk products like cheese, curd and butter milk, and green leafy vegetables like spinach and millets like ragi.||1. Maintenance of bones and teeth. 2. Also functions for one important blood clotting factor.3. It regulates the contraction of muscles.4. It forms components of several enzymes. 5. It transforms light into an electrical impulse in the retina. 6. Required for cardiac action and milk production.|
Manisha Yogesh Chaudhari is working as an Assistant Professor at Kokan Gyanpeeth’s Rahul Dharkar College of Pharmacy, Karjat, Maharashtra, India. She has worked with Pfizer and Flamingo Pharmaceuticals. She is actively involved in Books writing, Review, and research paper writing as well as actively involved in contributing towards academic literature
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