February 23, 2024

Inflammatory bowel diseases

Inflammatory bowel diseases

Definition

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of inflammatory conditions of the colon and small intestine.
Ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease are the main types of IBD.

Ulcerative colitis
Inflammation of the rectal and sigmoid colon (40-50%) is called proctitis.
40% is left sided colitis.
20% is about extensive colitis.

Crohn’s disease
Inflammation of the ileum and caecum (ileo-caecal) region is about 40%.
30-40% inflammation in segments of small intestine cause skip lesions.
10% is perianal.
20% is Crohn’s colitis.

Symptoms

Diarrhoea
Abdominal pain
Rectal bleeding
Tenesmus
Fever, vomiting
Cramps and muscle spasm

Etiology

Genetics (anti microbial peptides).
Diet
Cytokine response
Smoking
NSAIDS
Stress

Diagnosis

Chronic diarrhoea lasts for More than 4 weeks.
Endoscopy
Biopsy

Treatment

Mesalazine therapy- which reduces acute inflammation.
Corticosteroids- for immune suppression
Fluids for dehydration
TNF alpha antagonists like infliximab, and adalimumab.


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