## To calculate the uniformity Index for a given sample by using Double Cone Blender

Pharmaceutical Engineering Practical Lab Manual PDF Download

To calculate the uniformity index for a sample using a Double Cone Blender, you would typically follow these steps:

- Sample Preparation: Prepare the sample by ensuring it is representative and homogenous. If necessary, reduce the particle size to achieve uniform mixing.
- Weighing: Weigh the entire sample to be blended. Record the weight for later calculations.
- Blending: Transfer the weighed sample into the Double Cone Blender. Start the blending process according to the blender’s instructions, ensuring proper speed and duration for achieving uniform mixing.
- Sampling: After blending, take multiple samples from different locations within the blender. The number of samples and their locations should be representative of the entire blended mixture.
- Analysis: Perform an analysis of the individual samples to determine the content or property of interest. This could involve measuring the concentration of a particular substance or analyzing the particle size distribution.
- Calculation: Calculate the uniformity index using the data obtained from the analysis. The specific calculation will depend on the property being analyzed. Here are a few examples:

- Uniformity Index for Concentration: Calculate the coefficient of variation (CV), which is the standard deviation divided by the mean, for the concentration values obtained from the different samples. The uniformity index can be expressed as a percentage by multiplying the CV by 100.
- Uniformity Index for Particle Size Distribution: Determine the range of particle sizes observed in the different samples. The uniformity index can be calculated using various methods, such as the span (difference between the maximum and minimum particle sizes divided by the mean size) or the coefficient of uniformity (ratio of the particle size for a given percentage to the particle size for a smaller percentage).

It’s important to note that the specific calculations and formulas may vary depending on the nature of the sample and the property being analyzed. Additionally, different industries or standards might have their own specific methods for calculating uniformity indices.

### Uniformity index formula

The uniformity index for a sample can be calculated using the coefficient of variation (CV) based on the concentration or property of interest. The coefficient of variation is the ratio of the standard deviation (SD) to the mean (M), expressed as a percentage. Here’s the formula:

Uniformity Index = (CV × 100)

To calculate the coefficient of variation (CV), follow these steps:

- Obtain multiple samples from different locations within the Double Cone Blender after blending.
- Analyze the concentration or property of interest in each sample to obtain the values (e.g., concentration values).
- Calculate the mean (M) of the values by summing all the values and dividing by the number of samples.
- Calculate the standard deviation (SD) of the values using the following formula: SD = sqrt(Σ((X – M)^2) / (N – 1))

- X: Each value of the samples
- M: Mean of the values
- N: Number of samples

- Calculate the coefficient of variation (CV) using the following formula: CV = (SD / M) × 100
- Finally, calculate the uniformity index by multiplying the CV by 100: Uniformity Index = (CV × 100)

The resulting uniformity index provides a measure of the variability or uniformity of the concentration or property of interest in the sample. A lower uniformity index indicates a more uniform distribution, while a higher index suggests greater variability.

**Pharm Engg Chapterwise MCQ:** **UNIT-I** **MCQ *** Flow of fluids * Size reduction * Size separation **UNIT-I**I **MCQ ***Heat transfer *Distillation *Evaporation **UNIT-III** **MCQ ***Drying * Mixing **UNIT-IV** **MCQ *** Filtration * Centrifugation * **UNIT-V** **MCQ **Materials of construction * Corrosion

Pharmaceutical Engineering Practical Lab Manual PDF Download

I. Determination of radiation constant of brass, iron, unpainted and painted glass.

II. Steam distillation – To calculate the efficiency of steam distillation.

III. To determine the overall heat transfer coefficient by the heat exchanger.

IV. Construction of drying curves (for calcium carbonate and starch).

V. Determination of moisture content and loss on drying.

VI. Determination of humidity of the air – i) From wet and dry bulb temperatures –use of Dew point method.

VII. Description of Construction working and application of Pharmaceutical Machinery such as rotary tablet machine, fluidized bed coater, fluid energy mill, dehumidifier.

VIII. Size analysis by sieving – To evaluate size distribution of tablet granulations – Construction of various size frequency curves including arithmetic and logarithmic probability plots.

IX. Size reduction: To verify the laws of size reduction using a ball mill and determining Kicks, Rittinger’s, Bond’s coefficients, power requirement and critical speed of Ball Mill.

X. Demonstration of colloid mill, planetary mixer, fluidized bed dryer, freeze dryer and such other major equipment.

XI. Factors affecting Rate of Filtration and Evaporation (Surface area, Concentration and Thickness/ viscosity)

XII. To study the effect of time on the Rate of Crystallization.

XIII. To calculate the uniformity Index for a given sample by using Double Cone Blender.

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