Turpentine Liniment Pharmaceutics I Practical Lab manual
Aim: Preparation and Evaluation of Turpentine Liniment تارپین لینمنٹ
Glassware: Beaker, glass rod, glass bottles etc.
|Ingredients||Qty given||Qty taken||Activity|
|Camphor||50g||counterirritant and rubefacient|
|Turpentine oil (65%v/v)||650ml|
|Softsoap||90g||skin permeation enhancer.|
|Purified water||q.s to 1000ml||q.s to 15ml||Vehicle|
Time needed: 1 hour.
How to prepare Turpentine Liniment?
- Soap and Water mixture
Softsoap was mixed with a small portion of water.
- Camphor and turpentine oil mixture
Camphor was dissolved in turpentine oil.
- Mixing Oil and Soap solution
Turpentine oil was added gradually to the soap mixture mixing well after each addition.
- Formation of emulsion
The mixture was transferred to a tared bottle with the aid of purified water and shaken thoroughly till the time a creamy emulsion was formed
- Mix well
Preparation aside for half an hour volume adjusted and mixed well.
Turpentine oil and camphor are counterirritant and rubefacient. Counterirritants are agents that themselves produce irritation to the skin causing skin stimulation. They are useful for painful lesions of muscle, tendons and joints. Turpentine liniment is an O/W type of soap emulsion. Softsoap is produced by saponification of sodium/potassium hydroxide and higher fatty acids. In addition to the emulsifying properties, soft soap acts as a detergent lubricant and skin permeation enhancer. Since turpentine oil is less viscous and soft soap is easy to disperse bottle method is the best method suited for compounding
The use/category of turpentine liniment is Counterirritant and rubefacient
Storage: Store in a well-closed container, in a cool place away from light.
Labelling direction: Shake well before use. Apply with friction on intact skin. For external use only.
Counterirritant and rubefacient
O Determination of average globule size of Liniments: Dilute 1 ml of liniment to 10 ml of distilled water. Place a small amount of diluted liniment on a glass slide. Observe the slide under the microscope in a 10X lens and by using the magnification lens of 45X, measure the size of 100 globules.
O Dilution test: This test depends upon the fact that when a dispersion medium is added to a liniment, a phase separation is possible or not. Mix 1 ml of liniment with 1 ml of water and observe the miscibility of liniment with water. Turpentine liniment on dilution with purified water remains miscible. This test gives the type of liniment,
O Estimation of pH: Take 50 ml of liniment in a beaker. Then place the electrode in suitable buffers for calibration. After calibrating the instrument, place the electrode in liniment and note the pH.
O Determination of viscosity by Brookfield Viscometer: Select the spindle on the basis of viscosity. Clean the instrument and the spindle. Attach the spindle to Brookfield viscometer. Adjust the spindle in such a way that a spindle is just at the surface of the liniment. Select the required speed and then rotate the spindle for at least 20 minutes in the liniment, till it gets to find constant dial reading. To determine viscosity of a sample, constant electric supply as well as constant temperature should be maintained. Turpentine liniment should possess high viscosity.
O Determination of stability: Take 50 ml of liniment in a measuring cylinder and keep aside for 24 hours. After 24 hours, note the volume of external phase which is separated. Then calculate the phase volume ratio from which the stability can be measured.
O Counter irritants: These are the substances which act against irritation and remove pain.
O Rubefacient: Rubefacients are those substances which cause redness
O Vehicle: Vehicles or solvents are the medium in which ingredients of a formulation are dissolved, suspended or dispersed.
O Anti-inflammatory: These are the agents which reduce inflammation or swelling.
O Emulsifying agents: Emulsifying agents are the third substance or agent which produce the film at the interface between two immiscible liquids and stabilized the system, those agents are called emulsifying agent or emulsifier or emulgent.
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