May 20, 2024

Turpentine Liniment Pharmaceutics I Practical

Turpentine Liniment Pharmaceutics I Practical Lab manual

Aim: Preparation and Evaluation of Turpentine Liniment تارپین لینمنٹ

Glassware: Beaker, glass rod, glass bottles etc.


IngredientsQty givenQty takenActivity
Camphor50g counterirritant and rubefacient
Turpentine oil (65%v/v)650ml 
Softsoap90g skin permeation enhancer.
Purified waterq.s to 1000mlq.s to 15mlVehicle


Time needed: 1 hour

How to prepare Turpentine Liniment?

  1. Soap and Water mixture

    Softsoap was mixed with a small portion of water.

  2. Camphor and turpentine oil mixture

    Camphor was dissolved in turpentine oil.

  3. Mixing Oil and Soap solution

    Turpentine oil was added gradually to the soap mixture mixing well after each addition.

  4. Formation of emulsion

    The mixture was transferred to a tared bottle with the aid of purified water and shaken thoroughly till the time a creamy emulsion was  formed

  5. Mix well

    Preparation aside for half an hour volume adjusted and mixed well.


What is the theory involved in turpentine liniment?

Turpentine oil and camphor are counterirritant and rubefacient. Counterirritants are agents that themselves produce irritation to the skin causing skin stimulation. They are useful for painful lesions of muscle, tendons and joints. Turpentine liniment is an O/W type of soap emulsion. Softsoap is produced by saponification of sodium/potassium hydroxide and higher fatty acids. In addition to the emulsifying properties, soft soap acts as a detergent lubricant and skin permeation enhancer. Since turpentine oil is less viscous and soft soap is easy to disperse bottle method is the best method suited for compounding


What is the use/category of Turpentine Liniment?

The use/category of turpentine liniment is Counterirritant and rubefacient

Storage: Store in a well-closed container, in a cool place away from light.

Labelling direction: Shake well before use. Apply with friction on intact skin. For external use only.

What is the use of turpentine oil in turpentine liniment?

Counterirritant and rubefacient

Evaluation test:

O Determination of average globule size of Liniments: Dilute 1 ml of liniment to 10 ml of distilled water. Place a small amount of diluted liniment on a glass slide. Observe the slide under the microscope in a 10X lens and by using the magnification lens of 45X, measure the size of 100 globules.

O Dilution test: This test depends upon the fact that when a dispersion medium is added to a liniment, a phase separation is possible or not. Mix 1 ml of liniment with 1 ml of water and observe the miscibility of liniment with water. Turpentine liniment on dilution with purified water remains miscible. This test gives the type of liniment,

O Estimation of pH: Take 50 ml of liniment in a beaker. Then place the electrode in suitable buffers for calibration. After calibrating the instrument, place the electrode in liniment and note the pH.

O Determination of viscosity by Brookfield Viscometer: Select the spindle on the basis of viscosity. Clean the instrument and the spindle. Attach the spindle to Brookfield viscometer. Adjust the spindle in such a way that a spindle is just at the surface of the liniment. Select the required speed and then rotate the spindle for at least 20 minutes in the liniment, till it gets to find constant dial reading. To determine viscosity of a sample, constant electric supply as well as constant temperature should be maintained. Turpentine liniment should possess high viscosity.

O Determination of stability: Take 50 ml of liniment in a measuring cylinder and keep aside for 24 hours. After 24 hours, note the volume of external phase which is separated. Then calculate the phase volume ratio from which the stability can be measured.


 O Counter irritants: These are the substances which act against irritation and remove pain.

O Rubefacient: Rubefacients are those substances which cause redness

O Vehicle: Vehicles or solvents are the medium in which ingredients of a formulation are dissolved, suspended or dispersed.

O Anti-inflammatory: These are the agents which reduce inflammation or swelling.

O Emulsifying agents: Emulsifying agents are the third substance or agent which produce the film at the interface between two immiscible liquids and stabilized the system, those agents are called emulsifying agent or emulsifier or emulgent.

تارپین لینمنٹ

What is the difference between turpentine liniment and white liniment?

Turpentine Liniment: Turpentine liniment is primarily made from turpentine oil, which is obtained from the resin of various coniferous trees. It may also contain other ingredients such as camphor, menthol, or essential oils.
White Liniment: White liniment, also known as spirit of camphor, is typically composed of a mixture of camphor and a carrier liquid such as rubbing alcohol or mineral oil.
Turpentine Liniment: Turpentine liniment is commonly used as a counter-irritant or rubefacient, meaning it is applied to the skin to produce a warming sensation and increase blood flow to the area. It is often used for the temporary relief of minor aches, pains, and muscle strains.
White Liniment: White liniment, primarily due to its camphor content, is known for its cooling and soothing effects. It is often used for the relief of minor muscle and joint pain, sprains, insect bites, and itching.
Turpentine Liniment: Turpentine liniment may have a distinct, strong scent due to the presence of turpentine oil and other essential oils. Some people find the aroma invigorating or refreshing.
White Liniment: White liniment has a characteristic camphor odor, which is often described as cooling and refreshing. It is sometimes used in aromatherapy for its purported benefits, such as respiratory support or mood enhancement.
Turpentine Liniment: Turpentine liniment is less commonly found in mainstream stores and may be more readily available in specialty or traditional medicine outlets.
White Liniment: White liniment, on the other hand, is more widely available and can be found in many pharmacies, drugstores, or supermarkets.

Camphor liniment preparation

The preparation of camphor liniment can vary depending on the desired strength and ingredients used. Here’s a general recipe for preparing camphor liniment:


  • Camphor (crystals or oil)
  • Carrier oil (such as olive oil, almond oil, or mineral oil)
  • Optional: Essential oils (such as eucalyptus, peppermint, or lavender) for added fragrance or therapeutic benefits


  1. If you are using camphor crystals, crush them into a fine powder using a mortar and pestle. Skip this step if you are using camphor oil.
  2. In a clean glass container or bottle, combine the powdered camphor or camphor oil with the carrier oil. The ratio of camphor to carrier oil can vary based on personal preference, but a common ratio is approximately 1 part camphor to 4 parts carrier oil.
  3. If desired, add a few drops of essential oils to the mixture for fragrance or additional benefits. Make sure to choose essential oils that are safe for topical use and suitable for your needs.
  4. Securely close the container or bottle and shake it well to thoroughly mix the ingredients.
  5. Allow the mixture to sit for a few hours or overnight to allow the camphor to dissolve completely in the carrier oil. Shake the container occasionally during this time to aid the dissolution process.
  6. After the camphor has completely dissolved, your camphor liniment is ready to use. You can apply it topically to the affected area as needed.

Remember to label the container with the ingredients and date of preparation. It’s important to note that camphor liniment should be used externally only, and it’s advisable to perform a patch test on a small area of skin to check for any adverse reactions before applying it more extensively. If you have any specific health conditions or concerns, consult with a healthcare professional before using camphor liniment.

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First Year B Pharm Notes, Syllabus, Books, PDF Subjectwise/Topicwise

F Y B Pharm Sem-IF Y B Pharm Sem-II
BP101T Human Anatomy and Physiology I TheoryBP201T Human Anatomy and Physiology II – Theory
BP102T Pharmaceutical Analysis I TheoryBP202T Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry I Theory
BP103T Pharmaceutics I TheoryBP203T Biochemistry – Theory
BP104T Pharmaceutical Inorganic Chemistry TheoryBP204T Pathophysiology – Theory
BP105T Communication skills TheoryBP205T Computer Applications in Pharmacy Theory
BP106RBT Remedial BiologyBP206T Environmental sciences – Theory
BP106RMT Remedial Mathematics TheoryBP207P Human Anatomy and Physiology II Practical
BP107P Human Anatomy and Physiology PracticalBP208P Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry I Practical
BP108P Pharmaceutical Analysis I PracticalBP209P Biochemistry Practical
BP109P Pharmaceutics I PracticalBP210P Computer Applications in Pharmacy Practical
BP110P Pharmaceutical Inorganic Chemistry Practical
BP111P Communication skills Practical
BP112RBP Remedial Biology Practical