Tuberculosis Symptoms, Causative agent, transmission, Control, Prevention
Causative Agent: Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (Acid-fast bacillus)
Modes of Transmission:
1. Source of infection is the sputum of a patient suffering from T.B.
2. Transmission also takes place through droplet infection and droplet nuclei.
3. Fomites (Cups, handkerchiefs, toys, thermometers, dishes or other articles etc.) contaminated by nasopharyngeal Secretion of Patient or carrier can also spread this infection.
4. Drinking unboiled milk of an infected cow.
5. Transmission by flies through contaminated food.
6. Poverty, overcrowding and poor ventilation.
7. By direct contact with the patients.
8. Indirect transmission through flies is responsible for contaminating food and drink with the bacillus.
1. Prolonged cough.
2. Rise in temperature in the evening.
3. Loss of weight.
4. Loss of appetite.
6. Chest pain
7. Blood in the sputum.
8. Chronic cough and hoarseness of throat.
9. Night sweating etc.
Prevention and Control:
- Early detection of cases through
- Microscopic examination of sputum
- Chest X ray
- Mantoux test.( TB Screening test)
- Immunization with BCG vaccine.
- Importance of boiling milk should be taught.
- Isolation of case at home and at hospital in the well ventilated area.
- Exclusion of contact children from school for 2 weeks.
- Rehabilitation of patients by providing work which will suit his abilities.
- Importance of a balanced diet should be taught.
- Health education.
- People should be educated not to spit here and there.
- Preventive treatment i.e. Chemoprophylaxis by INH, Rifampicin, Ethambutol or combination of them.
Manisha Yogesh Chaudhari is working as an Assistant Professor at Kokan Gyanpeeth’s Rahul Dharkar College of Pharmacy, Karjat, Maharashtra, India. She has worked with Pfizer and Flamingo Pharmaceuticals. She is actively involved in Books writing, Review, and research paper writing as well as actively involved in contributing towards academic literature
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