To study the effect of time on the Rate of Crystallization
To study the effect of time on the rate of crystallization.
- Cover slip
- Refined bleached and deodorized palm oil are placed in a beaker which was initially heated in a thermally controlled water bath for 30 minutes at 70ºC to totally melt the oil.
- The temperature was then reduced to 30ºC within one hour followed by reducing to crystallization temperature of 14 or 22ºC within 30 minutes.
- Once the oil reached the desired temperature (14 or 22ºC), it was allowed to crystallize until 90 minutes where the analyses were made at 5,15,30,60 and 90 minutes to obtain the morphology of the crystals.
- The beaker content was constantly stirred at 90 rpm throughout the process using a stirring motor attached with two blades paddle propeller
- Samples of slurries were withdrawn at 5,15,30,60 and 90 minutes of crystallization and placed onto a slide which was then covered with a cover slip.
- Photograph of the crystals were taken at the magnification of 200x.
- The lengths of four longest dimensions of each crystal were recorded and an average of at least six crystals was measured during each observation.
|Time (min)||Crystal Size (µm)|
Rate of crystallization of palm oil at the end of 90 minutes is = µm.
Pharm Engg Chapterwise MCQ: UNIT-I MCQ * Flow of fluids * Size reduction * Size separation UNIT-II MCQ *Heat transfer *Distillation *Evaporation UNIT-III MCQ *Drying * Mixing UNIT-IV MCQ * Filtration * Centrifugation * UNIT-V MCQ Materials of construction * Corrosion
I. Determination of radiation constant of brass, iron, unpainted and painted glass.
II. Steam distillation – To calculate the efficiency of steam distillation.
III. To determine the overall heat transfer coefficient by the heat exchanger.
IV. Construction of drying curves (for calcium carbonate and starch).
V. Determination of moisture content and loss on drying.
VI. Determination of humidity of the air – i) From wet and dry bulb temperatures –use of Dew point method.
VII. Description of Construction working and application of Pharmaceutical Machinery such as rotary tablet machine, fluidized bed coater, fluid energy mill, dehumidifier.
VIII. Size analysis by sieving – To evaluate size distribution of tablet granulations – Construction of various size frequency curves including arithmetic and logarithmic probability plots.
IX. Size reduction: To verify the laws of size reduction using a ball mill and determining Kicks, Rittinger’s, Bond’s coefficients, power requirement and critical speed of Ball Mill.
X. Demonstration of colloid mill, planetary mixer, fluidized bed dryer, freeze dryer and such other major equipment.
XI. Factors affecting Rate of Filtration and Evaporation (Surface area, Concentration and Thickness/ viscosity)
XII. To study the effect of time on the Rate of Crystallization.
XIII. To calculate the uniformity Index for a given sample by using Double Cone Blender.