Demonstration of various stages of tablet manufacturing processes
Pharmaceutics Practical D Pharm Practicals
Pharmaceutics Practicals: Handling official references Liquid Oral: Simple syrup, Piperazine citrate elixir, Aqueous Iodine solution Emulsion: Castor oil emulsion, Cod liver oil emulsion Suspension: Calamine lotion, Magnesium hydroxide mixture Ointment: Simple ointment base, Sulphur ointment Cream: Cetrimide cream Gel: Sodium alginate gel Liniment: Turpentine liniment, Dry powder: Effervescent powder / effervescent granules, Dusting powder Sterile Injection: Normal Saline Solution, Calcium gluconate Injection Hard Gelatine Capsule: Tetracycline capsules Tablet: Paracetamol tablets Cosmetic preparations: Cold cream
The manufacturing of tablets involves numerous unit processes, including:
Particle size reduction and sizing
Testing of physical properties
Sizing (size reduction, milling, crushing, grinding, pulverization) is an important step in the process of tablet manufacturing.
In the manufacturing of compressed tablets, the mixing or blending of several solid pharmaceutical ingredients is easier and more uniform if the ingredients are about the same size. This provides greater uniformity of dose. Fine particle size is essential in the case of lubricant mixing with granules for its proper function.
Various types of machines may be used for the dry sizing or milling process, depending on whether gentle screening or particle milling is needed. The range of equipment employed for this process includes:
Fluid energy mill
The successful mixing of powder is more difficult than mixing liquid, as perfect homogeneity is difficult to achieve. Another problem is the inherent cohesiveness and resistance to movement between the individual particles. The process is further complicated in many systems by the presence of substantial segregation influencing the powder mix. This arises from the difference in size, shape, and density of the component particles.
The powder/granules may be blended at the pre-granulation and/or post-granulation stage of tablet manufacturing. Each process of mixing has an optimum mixing time, and longer mixing may result in an undesired product. The optimum mixing time and speed must be evaluated. Blending prior to compression is normally achieved in a simple tumble blender. This be a fixed blender into which the powders are charged, blended and discharged. It is now common to use a bin blender from which the container (bin) can be removed and brought directly to other processing steps.
In special cases of mixing a lubricant, overmixing should be particularly monitored. The various blenders used include the “V” blender, oblicone blender, container blender, tumbling blender, and agitated powder blender.
Following particle size reduction and blending, the formulation may be granulated, which provides homogeneity of drug distribution in the blend. This process is very important and needs the experience to attain the proper quality of granules before tabletting. The quality of granules determines the smooth and trouble-free process of tablet manufacturing. If granulation is not done in a proper manner, the resulting mixture may damage the tabletting press.
Drying is an important step in the formulation and development of a pharmaceutical product. It is important to keep the residual moisture low enough to prevent product deterioration and ensure free-flowing properties. The commonly used dryers include the fluidized-bed dryer, vacuum tray dryer, microwave dryer, spray dryer, freeze dryer, turbo-tray dryer, and pan dryer.
Stage 1: Top punch is withdrawn from the die by the upper cam. The bottom punch is low in the die so powder falls in through the hole and fills the die.
Stage 2: The bottom punch moves up to adjust the powder weight. It raises and expels some powder.
Stage 3: Top punch is driven into the die by the upper cam. The bottom punch is raised by the lower cam. Both punch heads pass between heavy rollers to compress the powder.
Stage 4: Top punch is withdrawn by the upper cam. A lower punch is pushed up and expels the tablet, which is removed from the die surface by a surface plate.
Stage 5: Return to stage 1.
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