July 20, 2024

Synthesis of Sulphanilamide

Synthesis of Sulphanilamide


BP607P Medicinal Chemistry III Practical : I Preparation of drugs Sulphanilamide * 7-Hydroxy, 4-methyl coumarin * Chlorobutanol * Triphenyl imidazole * Tolbutamide * Hexamine II Assay of drugs Isonicotinic acid hydrazide * Chloroquine * Metronidazole * Dapsone * Chlorpheniramine maleate * Benzyl penicillin III Microwave irradiation technique Synthesis of Phenytoin by Microwave * Synthesis of Aspirin by Microwave IV Drawing structures and reactions using chem draw®


Aim: Synthesis of Sulphanilamide

To synthesis and submit sulphanilamide from p-acetamido benzene sulphanilamide and calculate its percentage yield.

Principle:

Sulphanilamide can be prepared by the reaction of P-acetamido benzene sulphanilamide with Hydrochloric acid or ammonium carbonate. The acetamido groups are easily undergo acid catalysed hydrolysis reaction to form p-amino benzene sulphonamide.

Reaction:

Synthesis of Sulphanilamide

Chemical Required:

Resorcinol   –        1.2 g

Ethyl acetoacetate           –        2.4 ml

Conc. Sulphuric acid                –        7.5 ml

Procedure:

1.5 gm of 4- acetamido benzene sulphonamide is treated with a mixture of 1 ml of conc. Sulphuric acid diluted with 2 ml water. This mixture is gently heated under reflux for 1 hour. Then 3ml of water is added and the solution is boiled again, with the addition of a small quantity of activated charcoal. The solution is filtered while hot, and the filtrate is neutralised with powdered sodium carbonate with stirring until all effervescence ceases and the sulphanilamide is precipitated as a  white powder.  The solution is cooled,

and filtered, and the sulphanilamide wash with water and dried.  Finally,  crude sulphanilamide is recrystallized from hot water, to get colourless crystals.

Melting Point: 163 C

Category: Bacteriostatic agent

Report:

The Sulphanilamide was synthesised and submitted, Reported the following

  1. Theoretical Yield =
  2. Practical Yield    =
  3. Percentage Yield =

Third Year B Pharm Notes, Syllabus, Books, PDF Subjectwise/Topicwise

T Y B Pharm Sem VT Y B Pharm Sem VI
BP501T Medicinal Chemistry II TheoryBP601T Medicinal Chemistry III Theory
BP502T Industrial Pharmacy TheoryBP602T Pharmacology III Theory
BP503T Pharmacology II TheoryBP603T Herbal Drug Technology Theory
BP504T Pharmacognosy II TheoryBP604T Biopharmaceutics and Pharmacokinetics Theory
BP505T Pharmaceutical Jurisprudence TheoryBP605T Pharmaceutical Biotechnology – Theory
BP506P Industrial Pharmacy I PracticalBP606T Quality Assurance Theory
BP507P Pharmacology II PracticalBP607P Medicinal chemistry III Practical
BP508P Pharmacognosy II PracticalBP608P Pharmacology III Practical
BP609P Herbal Drug Technology Practical

Intereseting facts about Sulphanilamide

Sulfanilamide, also known as sulphanilamide, is an organic compound that belongs to the group of sulfonamide antibiotics. It was one of the earliest and most significant antibiotics used to treat bacterial infections. Here are some interesting facts about sulfanilamide:

Discovery and Development:

Sulfanilamide was first synthesized in 1908 by Paul Gelmo, a German chemist. However, its antibacterial properties were not discovered until the 1930s when it was developed by the German pharmaceutical company Bayer. The drug gained worldwide attention for its effectiveness against various bacterial infections.

Antibacterial Action:

Sulfanilamide works by inhibiting the growth of bacteria. It is a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme dihydropteroate synthetase, which is involved in the synthesis of folic acid, an essential nutrient for bacterial growth. By blocking this enzyme, sulfanilamide disrupts the production of folic acid and hinders the bacteria’s ability to multiply and cause infection.

Medical Breakthrough:

Sulfanilamide was a groundbreaking discovery in the field of medicine. Before its introduction, bacterial infections were a significant cause of mortality and morbidity. The availability of sulfanilamide provided an effective treatment option, saving countless lives and revolutionizing the field of antibiotics.

Mass Production:

During World War II, sulfanilamide played a vital role in medical care for soldiers on the battlefield. The drug was mass-produced by pharmaceutical companies, including the American company Abbott Laboratories. The availability of sulfanilamide helped prevent and treat infections, reducing the severity of wounds and improving survival rates.

Controversial Incident:

Despite its lifesaving properties, sulfanilamide was involved in a tragic incident in 1937 known as the “Elixir Sulfanilamide” disaster. The S.E. Massengill Company in the United States produced a liquid form of sulfanilamide using diethylene glycol as a solvent, which is highly toxic. This resulted in the deaths of more than 100 people, mostly children, due to the toxic effects of diethylene glycol. The incident led to stricter regulations and the establishment of the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act in the United States, emphasizing drug safety and proper testing.

Impact on Antibiotics Development:

Sulfanilamide’s success inspired further research and development of other sulfonamide antibiotics. Scientists explored different derivatives of sulfanilamide, leading to the development of numerous related compounds with enhanced antibacterial properties. This paved the way for the discovery of other important antibiotics like penicillin.

Decline in Use:

Over time, sulfanilamide’s usage has decreased due to the emergence of more effective and safer antibiotics. It is still occasionally used in certain contexts, but it has largely been replaced by newer generations of antibiotics with a broader spectrum of activity and fewer side effects.


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