November 29, 2023

Detailed study of Frog by using Computer models

Detailed study of Frog by using Computer models


To perform a detailed study of frogs using computer models.


     Frogs are the most commonly dissected animals below the university level other species used include cats, mice, rats, worms, dogs, rabbits, fetal pigs and fish.

     Various alternatives to animal dissection are being used to meet the students’ needs in the classroom. The modern teaching methods, including interactive computer simulations and clay models: save animals’ lives, cost less than animal dissection, are suitable for all students, and are more effective than animal dissection.

     Some of the commonly used alternatives/ computer simulations which can be used to perform a detailed study on frogs include digital frog 2.5.


     It is a fully interactive CD-ROM that allows students to explore the frog through three seamlessly linked modules dissection, anatomy, and ecology.

V- Frog

     It is the first virtual reality-based frog dissection software designed for biology education. Using a simple mouse and basic personal computer, a student can pick up a scalpel, cut and open the skin of the frog, and explore anatomy, physiology, and evolution, just like he or she would with a physical frog.

These programs can be used to study the systems of the body:

1.  integumentary system deals with the study of skin and associated structures.

2.  Muscular system deals with the study of skeletal muscle tissue and its attachment to bones.

3.  Skeletal system deals with the study of bones and joints.

4.  Nervous system deals with the study of the brain, nerves and special senses.

5.  Cardiovascular system deals with the study of blood, heart and blood vessels.

6.  Respiratory system deals with the study of organs of respiration and other air passages.

 7.  Digestive system deals with the study of organs of G.I.T. i.e. oesophagus, stomach,

small and large intestine.

8.  Reproductive system deals with the study of male and female reproductive organs.

9.  Excretory system deals with the study of organs for the excretion of waste products. Other systems are the lymphatic system and endocrine system.

In all, there are 11 systems in the body.

Remedial Biology Practicals

  1. Experiments in biology a) Study of Microscope b) Section cutting techniques c) Mounting and staining d) Permanent slide preparation 2. Study of cell and its inclusions 3. Study of Stem, Root, Leaf, seed, fruit, flower and their modifications 4. Detailed study of frog by using computer models 5. Microscopic study and identification of tissues pertinent to Stem, Root Leaf, seed, fruit and flower 6. Identification of bones 7. Determination of blood group 8. Determination of blood pressure 9. Determination of tidal volume

First Year B Pharm Notes, Syllabus, Books, PDF Subjectwise/Topicwise

F Y B Pharm Sem-IS Y B Pharm Sem-II
BP101T Human Anatomy and Physiology I TheoryBP201T Human Anatomy and Physiology II – Theory
BP102T Pharmaceutical Analysis I TheoryBP202T Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry I Theory
BP103T Pharmaceutics I TheoryBP203T Biochemistry – Theory
BP104T Pharmaceutical Inorganic Chemistry TheoryBP204T Pathophysiology – Theory
BP105T Communication skills TheoryBP205T Computer Applications in Pharmacy Theory
BP106RBT Remedial BiologyBP206T Environmental sciences – Theory
BP106RMT Remedial Mathematics TheoryBP207P Human Anatomy and Physiology II Practical
BP107P Human Anatomy and Physiology PracticalBP208P Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry I Practical
BP108P Pharmaceutical Analysis I PracticalBP209P Biochemistry Practical
BP109P Pharmaceutics I PracticalBP210P Computer Applications in Pharmacy Practical
BP110P Pharmaceutical Inorganic Chemistry Practical
BP111P Communication skills Practical
BP112RBP Remedial Biology Practical

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