February 22, 2024

To study the nervous system using specimens, models

To study the nervous system using specimens, models

Aim :

To study the nervous system using specimens, models

Requirement: Human Brain chart model.

Theory :

Brain (Encephalon):

It is a soft, large-sized and slightly flattened structure present inside the cranial cavity of the cranium of the skull. In man, it is about 1200-1400 gm in weight and has about 10,000 million neurons. The brain is made up of 3 parts

(1) Fore brain (prosencephalon)

(i) Olfactory lobe – Rhinencephalon
(ii) Cerebrum – Telencephalon
(iii) Diencephalon – Diencephalon

(2) Mid-brain (Mesencephalon)

(i) Optic lobes – Mesencephalon

(3) Hindbrain (Rhambencephalon)

(i) Cerebellum – Metencephalon
(ii) Medulla oblongata – Myelencephalon
(iii) Cerebrum : (a) Structure is divided into 5 lobes (i) frontal (ii) parietal, (iii) occipital (iv) temporal and (v) limbic.

A lobe called insula is hidden as it lies deep in the Sylvian fissure.

The cerebral hemispheres are separated from the olfactory lobes by a rhinal fissure. The median fissure divides the cerebrum into a right and a left cerebral hemisphere.

A few sulci are well developed and form three deep and wide fissures which divide each cerebral hemisphere into four lobes: anterior frontal lobe, middle parietal lobe, posterior occipital lobe and lateral temporal lobe.


The hypothalamus is visible in the ventral view of the brain and forms the floor of the diencephalon. Hypothalamus also gives a nervous process called infundibulum (forms pars nervosa) which meets a rounded non-nervous pharyngeal outgrowth called hypophysis. Both collectively form a master gland called the pituitary body. A stalked outgrowth of the infundibulum combines with a pouch-like epithelial outgrowth (Rathke’s pouch) of the roof of the embryonic mouth (= stomodaeum), forming a pituitary gland or hypophysis. Which secretes a number of hormones. In front of the hypothalamus, there is a cross of two optic nerves called optic chiasma. Behind the hypothalamus, there is one pair of small, rounded, nipple-like bodies called mammillary bodies or corpora mammillarias. The hypothalamus consists of many masses of grey matter, called hypothalamic nuclei, scattered in the white matter.

The cerebrum is a centre for

(i) Intelligence
(ii) Emotion
(iii) Will power
(iv) Memory
(v) Experience
(vi) Defecation
(vii) Consciousness
(viii) Knowledge
(ix) Imagination
(x) Reasoning

Cerebellum (Sandwiched brain)

The cerebellum is highly convoluted and well-developed in mammals. It controls the most intricate movements of the body. It coordinates sensory information received from muscles/ joints, visual, auditory and equilibrium receptors as well as the flow of impulses from the cerebral cortex.
The cerebellum is made up of- (a) Vermis, (b) Cerebellar lobes (= floccular lobes ), (Lateral lobes, and (d) Pons.

Medulla oblongata

The medulla oblongata is the hindest and posterior-most part of the brain. The cavity is known as IVth ventricle (metacoel). Which is continuous with the central canal of the spinal cord. It has a pair of lateral Foramina of Luschka and a median foramen magendic. Cerebrospinal fluid come in contact with these apertures from the internal cavity of the brain to the outer fluid of the meninges. An arrangement on its ventral surface there is bulging ascending and descending tracts which are called pyramids. On the ventral surface, these pyramids cross each other which is called decussate of pyramids.

In the medulla oblongata, most of the sensory and motor fibres cross from one side to the other. Thus, the left cerebral hemisphere controls the right side of the body and vice versa. The reason for this is not known. The lower end of the medulla passes into the spinal cord. There is no demarcation between the two. However, the medulla is considered to start at the level of the foramen magnum of the cranium.

Pons Varolii

An oval mass, called the pons Varolii, lies above the medulla oblongata. It consists mainly of nerve fibres which interconnect the cerebellar hemispheres and also join the medulla with higher brain centres, hence its name pons means bridge. Pons possess pneumotoxic and apneustic areas or centres. From pons 5,6,7 and 8 th cranial nerve originates.

BP207P Human Anatomy and Physiology II Practical

To study the integumentary and special senses using specimens, models, etc.,
To study the nervous system using specimens, models, etc.,
To study the endocrine system using specimens, models, etc
To demonstrate the general neurological examination
To demonstrate the function of olfactory nerve
To examine the different types of taste.
To demonstrate the visual acuity
To demonstrate the reflex activity
Recording of body temperature
Determination of tidal volume and vital capacity.
Study of digestive, respiratory, cardiovascular systems, urinary and reproductive systems with the help of models, charts and specimens.
Recording of the basal mass index.
Study of family planning devices and pregnancy diagnosis test.
Demonstration of total blood count by cell analyzer
Permanent slides of vital organs and gonads

First Year B Pharm Notes, Syllabus, Books, PDF Subjectwise/Topicwise

F Y B Pharm Sem-IF Y B Pharm Sem-II
BP101T Human Anatomy and Physiology I TheoryBP201T Human Anatomy and Physiology II – Theory
BP102T Pharmaceutical Analysis I TheoryBP202T Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry I Theory
BP103T Pharmaceutics I TheoryBP203T Biochemistry – Theory
BP104T Pharmaceutical Inorganic Chemistry TheoryBP204T Pathophysiology – Theory
BP105T Communication skills TheoryBP205T Computer Applications in Pharmacy Theory
BP106RBT Remedial BiologyBP206T Environmental sciences – Theory
BP106RMT Remedial Mathematics TheoryBP207P Human Anatomy and Physiology II Practical
BP107P Human Anatomy and Physiology PracticalBP208P Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry I Practical
BP108P Pharmaceutical Analysis I PracticalBP209P Biochemistry Practical
BP109P Pharmaceutics I PracticalBP210P Computer Applications in Pharmacy Practical
BP110P Pharmaceutical Inorganic Chemistry Practical
BP111P Communication skills Practical
BP112RBP Remedial Biology Practical

Suggested readings

  • Navigating the Intricacies of Subdural Space: An In-Depth Academic Exploration

  • Unraveling the Complex World of Embolization: A Comprehensive Guide

  • Unveiling Subdural Hematoma: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment