Soil pollution: Environmental sciences Notes, MCQ, Books, PDF
EVS Notes Unit I Multidisciplinary nature, Natural Resources, Forest resources, Water resources, Mineral resources, Food resources, Energy resources, Land resources, Role of an individual Unit II Introduction structure-function, Forest eco-system; Grassland ecosystem; Desert ecosystem; Aquatic ecosystems Unit III Air pollution, Water pollution, Soil pollution
Soil pollution is the contamination of the upper layer of the earth’s crust by chemicals or other toxic substances that lead to either reduction in fertility of the soil in terms of crop production or whose addition results in detrimental effects on soil microorganisms, insects, plant life and organism who consume those plants.
Sources of Soil Pollution
• Industrial Wastes.
• Improper Use of fertilizers, insecticides, pesticides, etc.
• Urban waste consisting of solid waste and sludge also contribute heavily to soil pollution.
• Radioactive Pollutants
Effects of Soil Pollution
Industrial effluents containing toxic chemicals dumped on land cause soil pollution and enter in the food chain, which has an adverse effect on human health.
Solid waste dumped on land cause disruption in everyday life and destroys the natural beauty of the landscape.
Dumped waste and organic waste give rise to foul odors.
Pathogenic bacteria cause diseases like cholera.
Biological magnification also known as bio-amplification is the increase in the concentration of a substance that occurs in a food chain. Biological magnification refers to the process whereby certain substances such as pesticides or heavy metals move up the food chain, work their way into rivers or lakes, and are eaten by aquatic organisms such as fish, which in turn are eaten by large birds, animals or humans. Bioaccumulants are substances that increase in concentration in living organisms as they take in contaminated air, water, or food because the substances are very slowly metabolized or excreted. There is good evidence that DDT, DDE, PCBs, toxaphene, and the organic forms of mercury and arsenic do biomagnify in nature.
e.g endosulfan is banned in some states due to overuse on cashew nut plantations.
Control Measures of Soil Pollution
• Industries should be banned from dumping toxic chemicals on agricultural land and proper disposal methods should be used.
• Government should provide subsidies, concessions, and tax exemptions to companies that use recycled raw materials.
• Application of organic manures and pesticides should be encouraged in agriculture.
• Plastic carry bags should be replaced by jute bags.
• Public awareness campaigns should be organized.
• Solid waste from urban and industrial areas should be disposed of using proper techniques.
• Trees and grass should be grown to check soil erosion
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