February 22, 2024

Pronunciation (Consonant Sounds)

Pronunciation (Consonant Sounds)

To learn and study consonant sound.

A consonant sound is made by blocking the flow of air as it leaves the body.

There are three key factors that define a consonant where you block the air (is it on the lips, the teeth etc), how you block the air (is it a full or partial blockage) and if you are the voice (compare /s/without voice and /z/ with voice)

English has 26 consonant sounds (if we include 2 versions of /t/ and /l/), with a strong focus on positions at the front of the mouth. Depending on your first language, some consonants will be harder than others, so then learn the position, place and noising for each sound, plenty of repetition practice helps the new sounds became natural.


1) Voiceless stops /p, t, k/ are aspirated when they are syllable initial.
Pip, test, kick.

2) Voiceless stops /p, t, k/ are unaspirated if immediately preceded by an /s/
Spew, stew, skew

3) Stops are unexploded when they occur before another stop in words such as.
Apt, rubbed

4) In many accents of English, syllable final /p, t, k/ are accompanied by a glottal Stop.
Tip, nit, kick

5) In many accents of English, /t/ is replaced by a glottal stop /? / When it occurs before an alveolar nasal [n] in the same word.

6) Nasals are syllabic at the end of a word when immediately after an obstruent.
(/p, t, k, t ʃ, f, o, s, ʃ/ and /b, d, g, ʤ, v, ǒ, z, ʓ/)
Leaden, chasm

7) The lateral /l, r/ are syllabic at the end of a word when immediately after a consonant.
Paddle, whistle, sabre, razor, hammer, tailor.

8 ) Alveolar stops (/t, d ,n/ ) become voiced taps [r] when they occur between two vowels with the second of which unstressed.
Winter, winner, panting, panning.

9) Alveolar stops are reduced or omitted when between two consonants.
Most peoples, best game

10) A consonant is shortened when it is before an identical consonant.
Big game, top post.

11) Velar stops become more front as the following vowel in the same syllable becomes more front.
/k/ in cap, kept, kit, key
/g/ in gap, get, give, geese

12) The lateral is velarized when after a vowel or before consonant at the end of a word.
Life, file, clap, talc, feeling, feel

Consonant sounds was learnt and studied

First Year B Pharm Notes, Syllabus, Books, PDF Subjectwise/Topicwise

F Y B Pharm Sem-IS Y B Pharm Sem-II
BP101T Human Anatomy and Physiology I TheoryBP201T Human Anatomy and Physiology II – Theory
BP102T Pharmaceutical Analysis I TheoryBP202T Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry I Theory
BP103T Pharmaceutics I TheoryBP203T Biochemistry – Theory
BP104T Pharmaceutical Inorganic Chemistry TheoryBP204T Pathophysiology – Theory
BP105T Communication skills TheoryBP205T Computer Applications in Pharmacy Theory
BP106RBT Remedial BiologyBP206T Environmental sciences – Theory
BP106RMT Remedial Mathematics TheoryBP207P Human Anatomy and Physiology II Practical
BP107P Human Anatomy and Physiology PracticalBP208P Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry I Practical
BP108P Pharmaceutical Analysis I PracticalBP209P Biochemistry Practical
BP109P Pharmaceutics I PracticalBP210P Computer Applications in Pharmacy Practical
BP110P Pharmaceutical Inorganic Chemistry Practical
BP111P Communication skills Practical
BP112RBP Remedial Biology Practical

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