May 20, 2024

Production of Amylase

Production of Amylase

Amylase is an enzyme that is commonly produced by microorganisms for the degradation of carbohydrates. The production of amylase using microorganisms can be accomplished through several methods, including:

  1. Fermentation: Microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi can be fermented to produce amylase in large quantities. This can be done in batch, fed-batch, or continuous cultures, depending on the desired scale of production.
  2. Recombinant DNA technology: This involves the insertion of the gene encoding the amylase into a microorganism, such as bacteria, yeast, or fungus. The recombinant microorganism can then be cultured to produce large quantities of the amylase.
  3. Immobilization: Microorganisms producing amylase can be immobilized on a support material, such as beads, to improve the stability and reusability of the enzyme.

The choice of microorganism and production method will depend on several factors, including the desired yield of amylase, the cost of production, and the specific properties of the amylase needed for the intended application.

Production of Amylase by fermentation

Amylase production by fermentation is a common industrial process for producing large quantities of the enzyme. The basic steps involved in amylase production by fermentation are:

  1. Strain selection: A suitable microorganism that produces amylase, such as bacteria, fungi, or yeast, must be selected. The strain should be able to grow well in the fermentation medium and produce amylase at high levels.
  2. Media preparation: A suitable fermentation medium must be prepared that provides the nutrients needed for growth and amylase production. The medium typically contains a source of carbon (such as starch or glucose), a source of nitrogen (such as yeast extract or peptone), and other minerals and vitamins needed for growth.
  3. Inoculation: The microorganism is inoculated into the fermentation medium, which is then incubated under controlled conditions. The temperature, pH, and agitation rate are optimized to promote growth and amylase production.
  4. Fermentation: The fermentation process is run for a specified time period, during which the microorganism grows and produces amylase. The conditions such as temperature, pH, and oxygen levels are monitored and controlled to ensure optimal growth and enzyme production.
  5. Harvesting and purification: The fermented broth is harvested, and the amylase is purified from the broth. This can be done by a combination of methods, such as centrifugation, filtration, and column chromatography.
  6. Drying and formulation: The purified amylase is dried and formulated into a product that is suitable for the intended application. This can be done by spray drying, freeze drying, or encapsulation, depending on the desired product form.

The exact details of the fermentation process will depend on the specific microorganism used, the intended application of the amylase, and the desired scale of production.

Production of Amylase by Recombinant DNA technology

The production of amylase by recombinant DNA technology involves the insertion of the gene encoding the amylase into a suitable host organism, such as bacteria, yeast, or fungi, which can then be cultured to produce large quantities of the enzyme. The basic steps involved in the production of amylase by recombinant DNA technology are:

  1. Cloning: The gene encoding the amylase is cloned into a plasmid, which is a small circular piece of DNA that can be easily manipulated. The plasmid is designed to contain a strong promoter that drives the expression of the amylase gene in the host organism.
  2. Transformation: The plasmid containing the amylase gene is transformed into a suitable host organism using methods such as electroporation or chemical transformation. The transformed cells are then selected for those that have taken up the plasmid and are expressing the amylase gene.
  3. Culture and fermentation: The transformed host organism is cultured under conditions that promote growth and expression of the amylase gene. The conditions, such as temperature, pH, and agitation rate, are optimized to ensure high levels of amylase production.
  4. Harvesting and purification: The culture broth is harvested, and the amylase is purified from the broth. This can be done by a combination of methods, such as centrifugation, filtration, and column chromatography.
  5. Drying and formulation: The purified amylase is dried and formulated into a product that is suitable for the intended application. This can be done by spray drying, freeze drying, or encapsulation, depending on the desired product form.

The advantages of producing amylase by recombinant DNA technology include the ability to produce large quantities of highly purified enzyme, the ability to modify the enzyme to improve its properties, and the ability to produce the enzyme in a consistent and reproducible manner.

Production of Amylase by Immobilization

Production of amylase by immobilization involves the covalent attachment of the enzyme to a solid support material, such as a bead or a membrane, to produce an immobilized enzyme. The basic steps involved in the production of amylase by immobilization are:

  1. Preparation of the enzyme: The amylase is purified from its natural source or produced by recombinant DNA technology.
  2. Immobilization: The purified amylase is attached to a solid support material using methods such as covalent bonding, adsorption, or entrapment. The choice of immobilization method will depend on the desired application and the properties of the enzyme and support material.
  3. Characterization: The immobilized enzyme is characterized to ensure that it retains its activity and stability. This can be done by assaying its activity, measuring its stability under different conditions, and examining its morphology using techniques such as electron microscopy.
  4. Reactor design: The immobilized enzyme is packed into a reactor, which is designed to provide the conditions needed for the reaction to proceed. This will depend on the desired application and the properties of the enzyme and support material.
  5. Use: The immobilized enzyme is used in a reaction to catalyze the breakdown of starch into sugars. The reactor can be run in batch, continuous, or semi-continuous mode, depending on the desired application.

The advantages of producing amylase by immobilization include the ability to recycle the enzyme, the ability to carry out reactions under conditions that would otherwise inactivate the enzyme, and the ability to carry out reactions with improved process efficiency and reduced costs. Immobilized amylase can be used in a variety of applications, including starch hydrolysis, beer brewing, and biofuel production.

Applications of Amylase

Amylase is a widely used enzyme with a variety of applications, including:

  1. Food and beverage industry: Amylase is used in the production of bread, beer, and other fermented foods to break down starch into simple sugars.
  2. Biofuels production: Amylase is used in the conversion of starch-rich plant materials, such as corn and cassava, into biofuels, such as ethanol and bio-butanol.
  3. Textile industry: Amylase is used to remove starch-based sizing agents from fabrics during textile processing.
  4. Paper industry: Amylase is used to hydrolyze the starch-based components of paper pulp, improving the quality of the paper produced.
  5. Animal feed industry: Amylase is used to improve the digestibility of animal feed, increasing the utilization of nutrients and reducing waste.
  6. Detergents and cleaning agents: Amylase is used as a component of laundry detergents and other cleaning agents to break down and remove starch-based stains.
  7. Diagnostics: Amylase is used as a diagnostic marker for pancreatic diseases, such as acute pancreatitis, as well as for other conditions that affect the salivary glands.
  8. Pharmaceuticals: Amylase inhibitors are used as a treatment for conditions such as diabetes, where the control of blood sugar levels is important.

Third Year B Pharm Notes, Syllabus, Books, PDF Subjectwise/Topicwise

T Y B Pharm Sem VT Y B Pharm Sem VI
BP501T Medicinal Chemistry II TheoryBP601T Medicinal Chemistry III Theory
BP502T Industrial Pharmacy TheoryBP602T Pharmacology III Theory
BP503T Pharmacology II TheoryBP603T Herbal Drug Technology Theory
BP504T Pharmacognosy II TheoryBP604T Biopharmaceutics and Pharmacokinetics Theory
BP505T Pharmaceutical Jurisprudence TheoryBP605T Pharmaceutical Biotechnology – Theory
BP506P Industrial Pharmacy I PracticalBP606T Quality Assurance Theory
BP507P Pharmacology II PracticalBP607P Medicinal chemistry III Practical
BP508P Pharmacognosy II PracticalBP608P Pharmacology III Practical
BP609P Herbal Drug Technology Practical

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