Poliomyelitis Symptoms, Sign, Prevention Control: Social Pharmacy Notes
Causative agent: Poliovirus serotype – I, II, III (Type I is predominant)
It generally occurs in children below the age of 5 years.
Signs and symptoms:
- Pre Paralytic symptoms
- Sore throat
- Stiffness of neck
- Body pain.
- Paralytic symptoms In some cases it leads to foot drop and flaccid paralysis of limbs.
Mode of transmission
- Fecal –oral route of infected person.
- Direct infection through contaminated fingers.
- Indirect transfer through contaminated water, food and flies transmission.
- Also transmitted through (fomites) other articles of daily use.
- Another route is the droplet infection, this occurs in the acute phase of disease when the virus occurs in the throat.
- Close personal contact with an infected person facilitates droplet infection.
Prevention & Control
- Notification and isolation of the patient.
- Proper disposal of urine, faces and other discharges of the patient should be properly disposed off. Since transmitted through fecal route and faeces remains ineffective for 4 weeks. .
- Fly control measures.
- Protection of water sources and supply of safe drinking water.
- Avoidance of overcrowding in school and public gatherings.
- Proper disposal of urine and faces.
- Immunization with killed salk vaccine by injection ( sik) and Sabine is live oral polio vaccine(los) .
- In India PPIP ( Pulse Polio Immunisation Programme) as mass immunization the programme is under operation for national polio eradication.
- Maintenance of hygienic conditions.
- Polio vaccine should not be given to any child suffering from diarrhea, dysentery, vomiting and fever.
- After administration of the vaccine, hot milk and hot fluids should not be given to any child for at least half an hour.
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Manisha Yogesh Chaudhari is working as an Assistant Professor at Kokan Gyanpeeth’s Rahul Dharkar College of Pharmacy, Karjat, Maharashtra, India. She has worked with Pfizer and Flamingo Pharmaceuticals. She is actively involved in Books writing, Review, and research paper writing as well as actively involved in contributing towards academic literature