Physical Pharmacy I MU BPH_C_302_T

Physical Pharmacy I

No. Details Hours
1. States of matter 11
1.1 Binding Forces between molecules 1
1.2 Gaseous state: Ideal and Real gases, ideal gas equation and van der waal’s equation (No derivation), 2
Critical Phenomena
1.3 Liquid state: Liquefaction of gases, aerosols, vapor pressure, latent heat, boiling point 2
1.4 Solid state: Amorphous solids, crystalline solids: crystal lattice and unit cell, crystal defects, 4
polymorphism, melting point, pharmaceutical significance of polymorphs and amorphous solids
1.5 Liquid crystalline state and supercritical fluid state: Properties and pharmaceutical significance 2



2 Physical properties of Drug Molecules 7
2.1 Additive, constitutive and colligative properties with examples; 3
Concept of tonicity in pharmacy, methods to adjust isotonicity;
2.2 Dipole moment, Dielectric constant and significance to pharmacy 1
2.3 Refractive index and molar refraction, Principle and working of Abbe’s refractometer and Application of
molar refraction to determine structures 1
2.4 Optical rotation, Specific rotation, measurement of optical rotation and its applications 2
3 Solubility and distribution phenomena 9
3.1 Solvent – solute interactions, Ideal and real solutions, Raoult’s law, deviation from Raoult’s law, 2
Azeotropic mixtures.
3.2 Phase equilibria and Phase rule (one, two and three component systems) 1
3.3 Solubility of gases in liquids, Henry’s law and applications 1
3.4 Solubility of liquids in liquids, miscible and partially miscible liquids, critical solution temperature and 2
3.5 Solubility of solids in liquids, solubility parameters 2
3.6 Distribution law, its limitations, modification for weak electrolytes (No derivation) and applications 1
4 Ionic equilibria and buffers 6

4.1 Strong electrolytes and weak electrolytes, dissociation of weak electrolytes, dissociation constant 2
4.2 pH, Sorensen’s pH scale, pH determination (glass electrode) 1
4.3 Applications of buffers, buffer equation (Henderson- Hasselbalch equation), buffer capacity, buffers in 3
pharmaceutical and biological systems
5 Interfacial phenomena 9
5.1 Surface tension, Interfacial tension, Surface free energy 1
5.2 Measurement of surface and interfacial tension-capillary rise method, drop number method, Drop weight 1
method, Du Nuoy tensiometer method
5.3 Spreading of liquids, Spreading coefficient, Surface active agents, Hydrophilic-Lipophilic balance, soluble 3
5.4 Adsorption at solid interfaces, Adsorption isotherms, Freundlich adsorption isotherm, Langmuir adsorption 3
5.5 Wetting, wetting agents and contact angle 1
6 Rheology 6
6.1 Definition: Rheology, viscosity, Newton’s law of flow, viscosity coefficients for Newtonian fluids 1
6.2 Non- newtonian systems: Plastic, pseudoplastic and dilatant, thixotropy and its significance 2
6.3 Measurement of flow for newtonian and non-newtonian systems 2
6.4 Deformation of solids: Introduction to Elastic, plastic, viscoelastic and fragmentation 1


Refer to latest editions

  1. J. Sinko, ‘Martin’s Physical Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences’ Fifth edition, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Indian Edition distributed by B.I. Publications Pvt. Ltd, 2006.
  1. Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms And Drug Delivery Systems, Howard C. Ansel,Nicholas G. Popovich, Loyd V.
  2. Pharmaceutics: The Science Of Dosage Form Design, Michael E.Aulton
  3. Bahl and Tuli, ‘Essentials of Physical Chemistry’ S. Chand and Company Ltd. Ramnagar, New Delhi-110055.
  4. Essentials of Physical Pharmacy , C.V.S Subrahmanyum, Vallabh Prakashan
  5. Textbook of Physical Pharmaceutics, C.V.S Subrahmanyum, Vallabh Prakashan
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