Pharmacognosy I MU BPH_C_203_T

Pharmacognosy I

No. Details Hours
1. Introduction, development, present status, significance and future scope of 2
pharmacognosy. Alternative and Complementary systems of medicine Ayurveda,
Unani, Siddha, Homeopathy, Chinese medicine and Aromatherapy.
Self study: Examples of sources of DONO • Examples of drugs used in different 1
traditional systems of medicine.
2 Classification of drugs: Alphabetical, morphological, taxonomical, 1
pharmacological and chemical
3 Techniques in microscopy of powdered drugs covering use of mountants, 2
clearing agents, chemomicroscopic reagents, micrometer, quantitative
4 Plant description, morphology, cell differentiation and ergastic cell 7
contents:Study of plant parts, cell and tissue, underground or subterranean
drugs,roots, rhizomes, corms, bulb, tubers, stolen, runners, and suckers; Leaves:
Simple and compound, stomata, stomata number, stomatal index, palisade – ratio,
hydathodes and water pores, epidermal trichomes, calcium oxalate crystals, vein-
islet number,vein termination number; Inflorescence and flowers; Fruits; Seeds;
Barks, and wood. Unorganised drugs: Dried latex, dried juices, dried extracts,
gums and mucilages, resins.


5 Introduction, classification with examples and important biological activities of 12
following groups of plant constituents: Carbohydrates; Alkaloids, Glycosides,
saponins, steroids and triterpenoids Flavonoids, lignans, coumarins, tannins and
polyphenolic compounds, Lipids and volatile oils; Gums, mucilages, resins and
resin combinations with examples. Details of Phytochemical test for the
evaluation of each class
6 Cultivation, Collection, Processing and storage of crude drugs: Factors 4
influencing cultivation of medicinal plants. Types of soils and fertilizers of
common use. Pest management and natural pest control agents. Plant hormones
and their applications. Polyploidy, mutation and hybridization with reference to
medicinal plants.
7 Study of plant, animal & mineral fibres with respect to their classification, 3
sources, production, chemistry, commercial utility and significance in
Pharmaceutical Industry for the following: Absorbent & nonabsorbent cotton,
jute, flax, hemp, asbestos, glass wool, silk, wool, rayon, viscose
8 Systematic pharmacognostic study of following 7
a)Carbohydrates and derived products: agar, guar gum acacia, Honey, Isabgol,
pectin, Starch, sterculia chitin, xanthan gum, tamarind kernel powder (TKP) and
b) Lipids: Bees wax, Castor oil, Arachis oil, Cocoa butter, Shea butter, Cod~liver
oil, Hydnocarpus oil, Kokum butter, Lard, Linseed oil, Rice Bran oil, Wheat
germ oil, Shark liver oil and Wool fat
9 Proteins and Enzymes Study of Proteins and Enzymes with respect to sources, 4
preparation and uses – protein hydrolysates, gelatin, casein, thyroid hormones,
proteolytic enzymes (Papain, bromelain, serratiopeptidase, urokinase,
streptokinase, pepsin). Study of plant lectins with respect to sources, composition
and applications for Abrin, ricin. 1
Self study: • Marketed formulations containing serratiopeptidase and their
10 Biological source, chemical constituents and uses of the following: Chirata, 2
Shatavari, Kalmegh, Karela, Punarnava, Guggul, Tinospora.
Self study:Brahmi, Neem,Tulsi, Amla, 1
11 Self study: Minerals: Kiselghur, Chalk, Talc, and Bentonite. 1


  1. Trease D. & Evans W. C.: Text Book of Pharmacognosy: W. B. Saunders.
  2. Tyler V.E., Brady L.R. & Robbers J. E.: Pharmacognosy; LeaFeibger, USA.
  3. Wallis T. E.;Text Book of Pharmacognosy; CBS Publishers, Delhi.
  4. Kokate C.K., Purohit A. P. &Gokhale S. B.: Pharmacognosy; Nirali Publications, Pune.
  5. Harbone J. B.: Phytochemical Methods: A guide to modern techniques Analysis: Chapman& Hall, London.
  6. Bruneton J.: Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry, Medicinal Plants: Intercept Limited.
  7. Vasudevan T.N. &Laddha K.S.: A Textbook of Pharmacognosy, Vrinda Publication House, Jalgaon.
    1. The Indian Pharmacopeia: The Controller of Publication; Delhi.
    2. Brain K.R. & Turner T. D.: ThePractical Evaluation of Phytopharmaceuticals: Wright, Scientica, Bristol.
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