February 22, 2024

Determination of particle size, and particle size distribution using the Microscopic method

Determination of particle size, and particle size distribution using the Microscopic method

BP407P Physical Pharmaceutics II Practical

Standard stage micrometre:

  • Standard stage micrometre is used to calibration of eye piece micrometre. Eye piece micrometre is a glass slide (7.5cm into 2.5cm) which has the scales engraved in the scale usefully 0.1mm is length. 1mm divided into 100 divisions. Thus smallest division least count of the stage micrometre represents 0.01mm or 10µm length.
  • In this experiment in the optical combination of 10x eye piece and 45x objective is used
  • The stage micrometre is least on the stage of the microscope. The objective is position to the centre of objective
  • Initially disc focus low power the scale of stage micro meter observed (100 divisions)
  • Now the objective is focus to high power (45x)
  • Two points were selected one point on the left side where divisions both scales coincide and another point on the right side
  • The number of small division that is eye piece were counted and big division stage micrometre were counted and recorded

1 eye piece = y/x × 0.01mm 1 eye piece = y/x × 10 µm

Procedure:

Counting of the sample

  1. A small portion of given sample transfer to a clean slide
  2. One (or) two drops of liquid paraffin is added to the slide
  3. The sample is dispersed uniformly with help of brush and particles should be in depended and distribution should be uniform
  4. The cover slip is placed carefully entrancement of air bubbles is avoided
  5. The slide is placed the stage of microscope

Measurement of particle size:

• The slide is focus in low power (10x) the presence of individual particle is absorb (if aggregation or lumps are present the sample should be mounted again)
• The size of the each particles measure is terms of eye piece division
• A total 300 particles should be considered for size distribution analysis. Ideally 625 particles measure according to BPC.

Report

From the graph it was found the particles were distributed uniformly from size range of 0-400µm.

according to BPC.

From the graph it was found the particles were distributed uniformly from size range of 0-400µm.

From the graph it was found the particles were distributed uniformly from size range of 0-400µm.


Physical Pharmaceutics II Practical

  1. Determination of particle size, and particle size distribution using the sieving method
  2. Determination of particle size, and particle size distribution using the Microscopic method
  3. Determination of bulk density, true density and porosity
  4. Determine the angle of repose and the influence of lubricant on the angle of repose
  5. Determination of viscosity of liquid using Ostwald’s viscometer
  6. Determination of sedimentation volume with the effect of different suspending agent
  7. Determination of sedimentation volume with the effect of different concentrations of single suspending agent
  8. Determination of viscosity of semisolid by using Brookfield viscometer
  9. Determination of reaction rate constant first order.
  10. Determination of reaction rate constant second order
  11. Accelerated stability studies

Which are the methods for determination of particle size?

Microscopy: Microscopy techniques, such as optical microscopy, electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy, can provide direct visualization and measurement of particles. This method allows for the measurement of individual particle sizes and shapes.
Sieving: Sieving involves passing the particles through a series of sieves with progressively smaller mesh sizes. The retained particles on each sieve are weighed, and the particle size distribution is determined based on the weight percentages in each sieve.
Sedimentation: Sedimentation techniques determine particle size based on the rate at which particles settle in a liquid medium. The most widely used method is the gravitational sedimentation method, where the settling velocity is measured and related to particle size using Stokes’ law. Other sedimentation techniques include centrifugal sedimentation and photon correlation spectroscopy.
Laser Diffraction: Laser diffraction is a widely used method for particle size analysis. It involves passing a laser beam through a dispersed particle sample and measuring the intensity and angle of the scattered light. Particle size distribution is then calculated based on the diffraction pattern.
Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS): DLS, also known as photon correlation spectroscopy, measures the fluctuations in scattered light caused by Brownian motion of particles in a suspension. The analysis of these fluctuations provides information about the size distribution of the particles.
Coulter Counter: The Coulter counter method determines particle size by measuring changes in electrical resistance as particles pass through a small orifice. Each particle disrupts the electrical current, and the magnitude of the disruption is related to the particle size.
Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (NTA): NTA is a technique used for sizing and tracking individual nanoparticles in solution. It utilizes a laser beam to illuminate particles, and a camera records their Brownian motion. Particle size is determined by analyzing the recorded particle trajectories.
Dynamic Image Analysis: Dynamic image analysis involves capturing images of particles in motion and analyzing them to determine size and shape parameters. This method is particularly useful for irregularly shaped particles.

Second Year B Pharm Notes, Syllabus, Books, PDF Subjectwise/Topicwise

S Y B Pharm Sem IIIS Y B Pharm Sem IV
BP301T Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry II TheoryBP401T Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry III Theory
BP302T Physical Pharmaceutics I TheoryBP402T Medicinal Chemistry I Theory
BP303T Pharmaceutical Microbiology TheoBP403T Physical Pharmaceutics II Theory
BP304T Pharmaceutical Engineering TheoryBP404T Pharmacology I Theory
BP305P Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry II PracticalBP405T Pharmacognosy I Theory
BP306P Physical Pharmaceutics I PracticalBP406P Medicinal Chemistry I Practical
BP307P Pharmaceutical Microbiology PracticalBP407P Physical Pharmaceutics II Practical
BP308P Pharmaceutical Engineering PracticalBP408P Pharmacology I Practical
BP409P Pharmacognosy I Practical

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