National Health Mission (NHM)
Chapter 1 Notes Social Pharmacy
1.1 Definition and Scope. 1.2 Role of Pharmacists in Public Health. 1.3 Concept of Health -WHO Definition,
1.4 Dimensions of health, 1.5 Determinants of health, 1.6 Indicators of health. 1.7 National Health Policy–Indian perspective 1.8 Public and Private Health System in India, 1.9 National Health Mission 1.10 Introduction to Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 1.11 Introduction to Sustainable Development Goals 1.12 Introduction to FIP Development Goals.
The National Health Mission (NHM) encompasses its two Sub-Missions,
1. The National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) and
2. The National Urban Health Mission (NUHM).
The main programmatic components include Health System Strengthening, Reproductive-Maternal- Neonatal-Child and Adolescent Health (RMNCH+A), and Communicable and Non-Communicable Diseases. The NHM envisages the achievement of universal access to equitable, affordable & quality health care services that are accountable and responsive to people’s needs.
The National Rural Health Mission (NRHM)
The National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) was launched by the Hon’ble Prime Minister to provide accessible, affordable and quality health care to the rural population, especially the vulnerable groups. The key features in order to achieve the goals of the Mission include making the public health delivery system fully functional and accountable to the community, human resources management, community involvement, decentralization, rigorous monitoring & evaluation against standards, the convergence of health and related programmes from village level upwards, innovations and flexible financing and also interventions for improving the health indicators.
NRHM seeks to provide equitable, affordable, and quality health care to the rural population, especially the vulnerable groups. Under the NRHM, the Empowered Action Group (EAG) States, as well as the North Eastern States, Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh, have been given special focus. The thrust of the mission is on establishing a fully functional, community-owned, decentralized health delivery system with inter-sectoral convergence at all levels, to ensure simultaneous action on a wide range of determinants of health such as water, sanitation, education, nutrition, social and gender equality. Institutional integration within the fragmented health sector was expected to provide a focus on outcomes, measured against Indian Public Health Standards for all health facilities.
National Urban Health Mission (NUHM)
In order to effectively address the health concerns of the urban poor population, the Ministry proposes to launch a new sub-mission National Urban Health Mission (NUHM). The Mission Steering Group of the NHM will be expanded to work as the apex body for NUHM also. Every Municipal Corporation, Municipality, Notified Area Committee, and Town Panchayat will become a unit of planning with its own approved broad norms for setting up of health facilities. The separate plans for Notified Area Committees, Town Panchayats and Municipalities will be part of the District Health Action Plan drawn up for sub-mission NUHM. The Municipal Corporations will have a separate plan of action as per broad norms for urban areas. The existing structures and mechanisms of governance under NHM will be suitably adapted to fulfil the needs of sub-mission NUHM also
NUHM would cover all State capitals, district headquarters and cities/towns with a population of more than 50000. It would primarily focus on slum dwellers and other marginalized groups like rickshaw pullers, street vendors, railway and bus station coolies, homeless people, street children, construction site workers
i) Need-based city-specific urban health care system to meet the diverse health care needs of the urban poor and other vulnerable sections.
ii) Institutional mechanism and management systems to meet the health-related challenges of a rapidly growing urban population.
iii) Partnership with the community and local bodies for more proactive involvement in planning, implementation, and monitoring of health activities.
iv) Availability of resources for providing essential primary health care to urban poor.
v) Partnerships with NGOs, for-profit and not for profit health service providers and other stakeholders.
References: National Health Mission Website
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