Microbiology MU BPH_C_405_T


No. Details Hours
1 5
1.1 Introduction to Microbiology, Brief history, Scope of Microbiology‐Basic & Applied, 1
Relevance and Applications in Pharmaceutical Industry.
1.2 Classification of Microorganisms, Prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms, Microbes 1
and the environment.
1.3 Microscopy, Simple microscope, Compound microscope, resolving power, magnification, 2
angular aperture, numerical aperture, Dark field microscopy, phase contrast microscopy,
fluorescent microscopy, electron microscopy.
1.4 Information used to characterize and identify microorganisms (in brief) ‐ morphological, 1
cultural, biochemical (metabolic), antigenic, pathogenic, genetic characteristics.
2 15
2.1 Bacteria – Morphology, Cell characteristics, Habitat, Nutritional requirements, Cultivation 3
of bacteria, Culture media‐ Cultivation & Storage media, Cultivation of aerobes and
2.2 Pure culture, Methods to isolate pure cultures, Preservation of cultures. Reproduction of 2
bacteria, Growth phases, Measurement of growth (enumeration), factors affecting growth,
continuous cultivation.
2.3 Overview of bacterial diseases and the pathogens causing them‐ Mycobacterium sp., 2
Salmonella sp., Shigella sp., Staphylococci sp., Pseudomonas sp., Klebsiella sp.,
Clostridium sp, Vibrio sp.
2.4 Viruses & related microorganisms – Morphological characteristics, Nutritional aspects, 2
Cultivation and reproduction, HIV and Oncogenic viruses.
2.5 Rickettsiae and Chlamydiae‐ Morphological characteristics, Cultivation, Rickettsial & 1


Chlamydial diseases.
2.6 Major groups of Eukaryotic microorganisms –
Fungi‐Morphological characteristics, Classification, Reproduction of fungi, Cultivation of 2
fungi, Culture media, Study of some important fungi‐ Penicillium, Aspergillus, Candida,
Saccharomyces. Fungal infections‐Mycoses
Algae ‐ Classification, Morphological characteristics, reproduction, economic significance 1
of algae.
Protozoa‐ Morphological characteristics and classification, reproduction, pathogenic 2
protozoa like Amoeba, Paramecium, Trichomonas, Plasmodium
3 11
Control of Microorganisms
3.1 Fundamentals of Microbial Control ‐ Pattern of Death in a Microbial population, 2
Conditions affecting Antimicrobial activity, Mechanisms of microbial cell damage,
Survivor curves and concepts of D ‐ value and Z‐ value. Inactivation factor.
3.2 Sterilization methods & Equipment‐ Heat Sterilization methods (Moist heat, dry heat, low 5
temperature sterilization methods), Radiation Sterilization, Ionizing and non‐ionizing
radiations, Filtration Sterilization, Gaseous Sterilization. Evaluation of the efficiency of
sterilization methods, Equipment employed in large scale sterilization, Sterility indicators.
3.3 Chemical agents used for control of microorganisms‐ Terminology of Chemical agents, 4
Ideal properties, Major groups of disinfectants and antiseptics (with mechanisms and
applications), Chemical sterilants, Evaluation of potency‐ Tube dilution & Agar plate
methods, Phenol Coefficient technique, Tissue toxicity index
4 5
4.1 Introduction to Aseptic techniques (no equipment) Designing of aseptic area, laminar flow 1
equipment; study of different sources of contamination in an aseptic area and methods of
prevention, clean area classification as per ISO and USFDA.
General aspects-environmental cleanliness and disposal of microbial waste.
4.2 Sterility testing of products (solids, liquids, ophthalmic and other sterile products) 1
according to IP, BP and USP
4.3 Principles and methods of different microbiological assay. Methods for standardization of 1
antibiotics, vitamins and amino acids. Assessment of a new antibiotic and testing of
antimicrobial activity of a new substance
4.4 Microbial limit tests : Types of spoilage, factors affecting the microbial spoilage of 1
pharmaceutical products, sources and types of microbial contaminants, assessment of
microbial contamination and spoilage.
4.5 Preservation of pharmaceutical products using antimicrobial agents, evaluation of 1
microbial stability of formulations.
Total 36


(Latest editions should be referred)

  1. J. Pelzer Jr., E.C.S. Chan and N.R. Krieg “Microbiology Concepts and Applications” McGraw Hill, Inc., USA, 1993.
  2. Frobisher, R.D. Hinsdill, K.T. Crabtree and C.R. Goodheart “Fundamentals of Microbiology”, 9th Edn. Saunders College Publishing, Philadelphia 1968.
  1. B. Hugo and A. D. Russel “Pharmaceutical Microbiology” 6th Edn. Blackwell Science Ltd. UK, 2003.
  2. Ananthanarayan and Ck. J. Panicker “Textbook of Microbiology”, 7th edn. Orient Longman Pvt. Ltd. Hyderabad, 2005.
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