May 19, 2024

Measurement of Hair tensile strength

Measurement of Hair tensile strength

What is Hair tensile strength

Hair tensile strength refers to the amount of force required to break a strand of hair, and it is a measure of the hair’s strength and resistance to damage. There are several methods to measure hair tensile strength, including:

  1. Pull test: In this method, a strand of hair is clamped at one end and pulled on the other end until it breaks. The force required to break the hair is recorded and used to calculate the tensile strength.
  2. Three-point bending test: This method involves clamping a strand of hair at two points and applying a load to the middle point. The force required to break the hair is recorded and used to calculate the tensile strength.
  3. Torsion test: In this method, a strand of hair is twisted until it breaks, and the force required to break the hair is recorded and used to calculate the tensile strength.

These tests can be performed on single strands of hair or on groups of hair fibers. The results can be used to compare the tensile strength of different hair samples and to evaluate the effects of different treatments on hair strength.

It is important to note that hair tensile strength can be influenced by several factors, such as the age of the hair, the structure of the hair, and the presence of any damage or chemical treatments.


Pull test

The pull test is a common method used to measure hair tensile strength. Here is a general outline of the procedure:

  1. Sample preparation: A single strand of hair is selected and any tangles or knots are removed. The hair is then clamped at one end using a hair clamp or a similar device.
  2. Applying the load: The other end of the hair is attached to a tensile testing machine, which applies a controlled force to the hair. The force is increased gradually until the hair breaks.
  3. Recording the results: The force required to break the hair is recorded and used to calculate the tensile strength of the hair. The tensile strength can be expressed in units of force per unit of cross-sectional area, such as Newtons per square millimeter (N/mm^2).
  4. Data analysis: The results from the pull test can be used to compare the tensile strength of different hair samples or to evaluate the effects of different treatments on hair strength. The data can be analyzed statistically to determine the mean, standard deviation, and other descriptive statistics.

It is important to note that the results of the pull test are dependent on the quality of the hair clamp and the tensile testing machine, as well as the experience of the operator. Care should be taken to ensure that the hair is clamped securely and that the force applied to the hair is consistent between tests.

Three-point bending test

The three-point bending test is a method used to measure hair tensile strength by applying a load to the middle of a strand of hair. Here is a general outline of the procedure:

  1. Sample preparation: A single strand of hair is selected and any tangles or knots are removed. The hair is then clamped at two points, equidistant from the middle of the hair.
  2. Applying the load: A load is applied to the middle of the hair using a tensile testing machine or a similar device. The force is increased gradually until the hair breaks.
  3. Recording the results: The force required to break the hair is recorded and used to calculate the tensile strength of the hair. The tensile strength can be expressed in units of force per unit of cross-sectional area, such as Newtons per square millimeter (N/mm^2).
  4. Data analysis: The results from the three-point bending test can be used to compare the tensile strength of different hair samples or to evaluate the effects of different treatments on hair strength. The data can be analyzed statistically to determine the mean, standard deviation, and other descriptive statistics.

It is important to note that the results of the three-point bending test are dependent on the quality of the hair clamps and the tensile testing machine, as well as the experience of the operator. Care should be taken to ensure that the hair is clamped securely and that the force applied to the hair is consistent between tests. Additionally, the length of the hair between the clamps should be consistent between tests to ensure that the results are comparable.

Torsion test

The torsion test is a method used to measure hair tensile strength by applying a twisting force to a strand of hair. Here is a general outline of the procedure:

  1. Sample preparation: A single strand of hair is selected and any tangles or knots are removed. The hair is then clamped at one end using a hair clamp or a similar device.
  2. Applying the load: The other end of the hair is attached to a tensile testing machine, which applies a controlled twisting force to the hair. The force is increased gradually until the hair breaks.
  3. Recording the results: The force required to break the hair is recorded and used to calculate the tensile strength of the hair. The tensile strength can be expressed in units of torque per unit of cross-sectional area, such as Newton meters per square millimeter (Nm/mm^2).
  4. Data analysis: The results from the torsion test can be used to compare the tensile strength of different hair samples or to evaluate the effects of different treatments on hair strength. The data can be analyzed statistically to determine the mean, standard deviation, and other descriptive statistics.

It is important to note that the results of the torsion test are dependent on the quality of the hair clamp and the tensile testing machine, as well as the experience of the operator. Care should be taken to ensure that the hair is clamped securely and that the force applied to the hair is consistent between tests. Additionally, the length of the hair between the clamp and the twisting mechanism should be consistent between tests to ensure that the results are comparable.

Limitations of hair tensile strength

  1. Limited Real-World Application: Tensile strength tests are conducted under controlled laboratory conditions, which may not accurately represent real-world situations. Hair strength can vary depending on environmental factors such as humidity, temperature, and exposure to chemicals or UV radiation.
  2. Single Hair Strand Testing: Tensile strength tests typically involve testing single hair strands. In reality, hair is a complex structure made up of multiple strands. The behavior of individual strands may not reflect the overall strength and resilience of a person’s hair.
  3. Variability Among Individuals: Hair strength can vary significantly among individuals due to factors like genetics, age, gender, and ethnicity. Tensile strength tests may not account for these variations adequately.
  4. Sample Preparation: The way hair samples are prepared and handled before testing can impact the results. Improper handling or processing of hair samples can introduce errors and affect the accuracy of the tensile strength measurement.
  5. Damage Accumulation: Tensile tests measure the point at which hair breaks. However, they do not account for cumulative damage to hair over time. Hair can become weaker due to repeated exposure to heat styling, chemical treatments, or environmental stressors.
  6. Influence of Hair Care Products: The use of hair care products, such as conditioners and styling products, can alter the properties of hair and affect its tensile strength. Testing may not always reflect the real condition of treated hair.
  7. Dynamic Properties: Tensile strength tests provide information about a hair strand’s resistance to stretching until it breaks. They do not capture dynamic properties like hair’s ability to recover its original shape or withstand repeated stretching and relaxation, which are important for hair’s functionality.
  8. Subjectivity of Breakage Point: Determining the exact point of hair breakage in a tensile test can be subjective and dependent on the operator’s judgment. This subjectivity can introduce variability in results.
  9. Limited Clinical Relevance: While tensile strength tests can be valuable for studying hair materials in a controlled setting, they may have limited clinical relevance for diagnosing hair health or predicting how hair will perform in everyday situations.
  10. Ethical Considerations: Collecting hair samples for tensile testing often involves obtaining hair from individuals or animals. Ethical concerns may arise, particularly when using human hair samples, as informed consent is essential.

In summary, while hair tensile strength testing provides valuable insights into the mechanical properties of hair strands, it has limitations related to its applicability to real-world scenarios, variability among individuals, sample preparation, and the dynamic nature of hair. It should be complemented with other assessments and considerations for a more comprehensive understanding of hair health and behavior.

Applications of Hair tensile strength

Hair tensile strength refers to the amount of force or stress that hair can withstand before breaking or experiencing damage. It is an important property in various fields, including:

  1. Cosmetics and Hair Care: Hair tensile strength is a key factor in the development of hair care products such as shampoos, conditioners, and treatments. Understanding the tensile strength helps in formulating products that strengthen and protect the hair, reduce breakage, and improve overall hair health.
  2. Forensics: Hair tensile strength analysis can be used in forensic investigations. Comparing the tensile strength of hair samples found at a crime scene to that of potential suspects can provide valuable evidence and help in identifying individuals involved in a crime.
  3. Research and Development: Researchers studying hair biology and hair disorders can use tensile strength measurements to assess the effects of various factors, such as genetics, environmental conditions, and treatments, on hair health and strength. This information can contribute to the development of new therapies and treatments for hair-related conditions.
  4. Textile Industry: Hair fibers, such as wool and animal hair, are used in the textile industry. Assessing the tensile strength of these fibers helps determine their suitability for various applications, such as clothing, carpets, upholstery, and industrial textiles.
  5. Material Science: Hair is a fibrous biological material with unique mechanical properties. Studying the tensile strength of hair can provide insights into the structure and behavior of other natural and synthetic fibers. This knowledge can be applied to the development of new materials with enhanced strength and flexibility.
  6. Consumer Product Testing: Hair tensile strength is often evaluated during the testing phase of hair tools, such as hair dryers, straighteners, and curling irons. These tests ensure that the products do not subject the hair to excessive force or damage during use.

Overall, understanding hair tensile strength has practical implications in various fields, ranging from cosmetic product development to forensic analysis and scientific research.


Final Year B Pharm Notes, Syllabus, Books, PDF Subjectwise/Topicwise

Final Year B Pharm Sem VIIBP701T Instrumental Methods of Analysis Theory
BP702T Industrial Pharmacy TheoryBP703T Pharmacy Practice Theory
BP704T Novel Drug Delivery System TheoryBP705 P Instrumental Methods of Analysis Practical
Final Year B Pharm Sem VIIBP801T Biostatistics and Research Methodology Theory
BP802T Social and Preventive Pharmacy TheoryBP803ET Pharmaceutical Marketing Theory
BP804ET Pharmaceutical Regulatory Science TheoryBP805ET Pharmacovigilance Theory
BP806ET Quality Control and Standardization of Herbals TheoryBP807ET Computer-Aided Drug Design Theory
BP808ET Cell and Molecular Biology TheoryBP809ET Cosmetic Science Theory
BP810ET Experimental Pharmacology TheoryBP811ET Advanced Instrumentation Techniques Theory
BP812ET Dietary supplements and NutraceuticalsPharmaceutical Product Development

Suggested readings: