July 24, 2024

Malnutrition: Social Pharmacy Theory Notes 1st year PDF Book

Malnutrition: Social Pharmacy Theory Notes 1st year PDF Book

What is Malnutrition?

Malnutrition refers to deficiencies, excesses, or imbalances in a person’s intake of energy and/or nutrients. The term malnutrition covers 2 broad groups of conditions. One is ‘undernutrition’—which includes stunting (low height for age), wasting (low weight for height), underweight (low weight for age), and micronutrient deficiencies or insufficiencies (a lack of important vitamins and minerals). The other is overweight, obesity, and diet-related non-communicable diseases (such as heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and cancer).

What are the consequences of malnutrition?

Many families cannot afford or access enough nutritious foods like fresh fruit and vegetables, legumes, meat, and milk, while foods and drinks high in fat, sugar, and salt are cheaper and more readily available, leading to a rapid rise in the number of children and adults who are overweight and obese, in poor as well as rich countries. It is quite common to find undernutrition and overweight within the same community, household, or even individual – it is possible to be both overweight and micronutrient deficient
Malnutrition affects people in every country. Around 1.9 billion adults worldwide are overweight, while 462 million are underweight. An estimated 41 million children under the age of 5 years are overweight or obese, while some 159 million are stunted and 50 million are wasted. Adding to this burden are the 528 million or 29% of women of reproductive age around the world affected by anemia, for which approximately half would be amenable to iron supplementation.

What are the main types of malnutrition?

The main types of malnutrition are:
Undernutrition: Includes stunting (low height for age), wasting (low weight for height), and underweight (low weight for age).
Overnutrition: Refers to excessive intake of calories, unhealthy diets, and obesity-related conditions.

What causes malnutrition?

Malnutrition can be caused by various factors, including poverty, lack of access to nutritious food, poor maternal and childcare practices, inadequate healthcare, food insecurity, and unhealthy diets.

What are the effects of malnutrition?

Malnutrition can have severe and long-lasting effects on physical and mental health, including growth stunting, weakened immune system, increased susceptibility to infections, developmental delays, cognitive impairment, and even death.

Who is most at risk of malnutrition?

Vulnerable populations such as children under five years of age, pregnant and breastfeeding women, elderly individuals, and people in low-income or conflict-affected areas are at higher risk of malnutrition.

How does malnutrition impact child development?

Malnutrition during early childhood can lead to irreversible cognitive and physical impairments. Stunted growth and cognitive deficits can affect a child’s learning abilities, productivity, and overall well-being.

Can malnutrition be prevented?

Yes, malnutrition can be prevented through a combination of interventions, including improving access to nutritious food, promoting breastfeeding, ensuring proper maternal and child care, and providing education on healthy eating habits.

What role does poverty play in malnutrition?

Poverty is a significant underlying cause of malnutrition. Limited financial resources can restrict access to diverse and nutrient-rich foods, leading to inadequate diets.

How does malnutrition contribute to global health challenges?

Malnutrition contributes to various health challenges, including increased child mortality, weakened immune systems, and a higher risk of non-communicable diseases like diabetes and heart disease.

Can malnutrition be treated?

Yes, malnutrition can be treated through medical and nutritional interventions. Severely malnourished individuals may require therapeutic feeding programs, nutritional supplements, and medical care.

How can individuals identify malnutrition?

Signs of malnutrition include weight loss, fatigue, weakness, slow healing, frequent infections, and changes in physical appearance such as thinning hair and dry skin.

Is malnutrition only a problem in developing countries?

While malnutrition is more prevalent in developing countries, it can also be a problem in developed nations, where overnutrition and obesity are significant concerns.

How does malnutrition impact public health systems?

Malnutrition places a strain on public health systems, leading to increased healthcare costs, a higher burden of preventable diseases, and reduced workforce productivity.

What are some global initiatives to combat malnutrition?

International organizations like UNICEF, WHO, and World Food Programme work to address malnutrition through programs focused on improving nutrition, food security, and maternal and child health.

What can individuals do to help combat malnutrition?

Individuals can contribute by supporting local and global initiatives, raising awareness about malnutrition, promoting healthy eating habits, and advocating for policies that address the underlying causes of malnutrition.

Various forms of malnutrition

Undernutrition

There are 4 broad sub-forms of undernutrition: wasting, stunting, underweight, and deficiencies in vitamins and minerals. Undernutrition makes children in particular much more vulnerable to disease and death.

Low weight for height is known as wasting. It usually indicates recent and severe weight loss, because a person has not had enough food to eat and/or they have had an infectious disease, such as diarrhea, which has caused them to lose weight. A young child who is moderately or severely wasted has an increased risk of death, but treatment is possible.

Low height for age is known as stunting. It is the result of chronic or recurrent undernutrition, usually associated with poor socioeconomic conditions, poor maternal health and nutrition, frequent illness, and/or inappropriate infant and young child feeding and care in early life. Stunting holds children back from reaching their physical and cognitive potential.

Children with low weight-for-age are known as underweight. A child who is underweight may be stunted, wasted, or both.

Micronutrient-related malnutrition

Inadequacies in intake of vitamins and minerals often referred to as micronutrients, can also be grouped together. Micronutrients enable the body to produce enzymes, hormones, and other substances that are essential for proper growth and development.

Iodine, vitamin A, and iron are the most important in global public health terms; their deficiency represents a major threat to the health and development of populations worldwide, particularly children and pregnant women in low-income countries.

Overweight and obesity

Being overweight and obese is when a person is too heavy for his or her height. Abnormal or excessive fat accumulation can impair health.

Body mass index (BMI) is an index of weight-for-height commonly used to classify overweight and obesity. It is defined as a person’s weight in kilograms divided by the square of his/her height in meters (kg/m²). In adults, overweight is defined as a BMI of 25 or more, whereas obesity is a BMI of 30 or more.

Being overweight and obese results from an imbalance between energy consumed (too much) and energy expended (too little). Globally, people are consuming foods and drinks that are more energy-dense (high in sugars and fats), and engaging in less physical activity.

Diet-related non-communicable diseases

Diet-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs) include cardiovascular diseases (such as heart attacks and stroke, often linked with high blood pressure), certain cancers, and diabetes. Unhealthy diets and poor nutrition are among the top risk factors for these diseases globally.


Reference: https://www.who.int


F Y D Pharm & S Y D Pharm Notes, Books, Syllabus, PDF, Videos

First Year D PharmSecond Year D Pharm
ER20-11T Pharmaceutics TheoryER20-21T Pharmacology Theory
ER20-11P Pharmaceutics PracticalER20-21P Pharmacology Practical
ER20-12T Pharmaceutical Chemistry TheoryER20-22T Community Pharmacy & Management Theory
ER20-12P Pharmaceutical Chemistry PracticalER20-22P Community Pharmacy & Management Practical
ER20-13T Pharmacognosy TheoryER20-23T Biochemistry & Clinical Pathology Theory
ER20-13P Pharmacognosy PracticalER20-23P Biochemistry & Clinical Pathology Practical
ER20-14T Human Anatomy Physiology TheoryER20-24T Pharmacotherapeutics Theory
ER2014P Human Anatomy Physiology PracticalER20-24P Pharmacotherapeutics Practical
ER20-15T Social Pharmacy TheoryER20-25T Hospital & Clinical Pharmacy Theory
ER20-15P Social Pharmacy PracticalER20-25P Hospital & Clinical Pharmacy Practical
ER20-26T Pharmacy Law & Ethics

Social Pharmacy Videos

MCQ Part 1 Social Pharmacy https://youtu.be/IgpVv-k3qco

MCQ Part 2 Social Pharmacy https://youtu.be/is4uwwPLTp8

Explanatory video

Part 1 Practical National Immunisation Program https://youtu.be/NKc6HqFHuHo

Part 2 Practical National Immunisation Program https://youtu.be/VFGZlvm5mSw

Part 3 Practical National Immunisation Program https://youtu.be/PxZ_vDnSHK8

Part 4 Practical National Immunisation Program https://youtu.be/KmerZ5fyfrY

Part 5 Practical National Immunisation Program https://youtu.be/EL1DBcRG7PQ


Suggested readings:

Recommended readings: