July 24, 2024

History of the profession of Pharmacy in India in relation to pharmacy education, industry, and organization

History of the profession of Pharmacy in India in relation to pharmacy education, industry, and organization

The profession of pharmacy in India has a rich history that dates back to the early 19th century. The first pharmacy school in India was established in 1844 in Kolkata, and since then, the profession has grown and evolved significantly. In the early years, pharmacists were primarily involved in compounding and dispensing medications, but with the advancements in medicine and technology, their role has expanded to include patient counseling, drug therapy management, and disease state management. In 1948, the Pharmacy Act was enacted to regulate the education and practice of pharmacy in India, and the Pharmacy Council of India was established to oversee the implementation of the act. Today, the pharmacy profession in India is well-established and highly respected, with numerous schools and colleges offering pharmacy education, and pharmacists playing a critical role in the healthcare system.

Pharmacy Education

The history of the pharmacy profession in India in relation to pharmacy education is a rich and evolving journey that spans several centuries. Here’s a concise overview:

Ancient Roots: The origins of pharmacy in India can be traced back to ancient times when Ayurveda, the traditional system of medicine, was practiced. Pharmacy skills were an integral part of Ayurvedic practices, including the preparation of herbal medicines.

Colonial Era: During the British colonial period, Western-style pharmacy education began to gain prominence. The first modern pharmacy institution in India, the Calcutta School of Pharmacy, was established in 1932. It aimed to provide education in pharmaceutical sciences along Western lines.

Post-Independence Expansion: After India gained independence in 1947, there was a renewed focus on expanding and developing pharmaceutical education. The Pharmacy Act of 1948 was enacted to regulate the profession and education of pharmacy in India.

Pharmacy Council of India: The Pharmacy Council of India (PCI) was established in 1949 as the regulatory body responsible for maintaining the quality of pharmacy education and practice in the country. PCI played a pivotal role in standardizing pharmacy education and curriculum.

Growth of Institutions: Over the decades, numerous pharmacy colleges and institutions were established across the country. These institutions offered programs such as Diploma in Pharmacy (D.Pharm), Bachelor of Pharmacy (B.Pharm), Master of Pharmacy (M.Pharm), and more recently, Doctor of Pharmacy (Pharm.D).

Advancements and Research: With the advancement of science and technology, pharmacy education evolved to incorporate fields like pharmaceutical chemistry, pharmacology, pharmaceutics, clinical pharmacy, and more. Research in pharmaceutical sciences gained significance, contributing to the development of new drugs and healthcare innovations.

Global Recognition: Indian pharmacists and pharmaceutical scientists began to contribute significantly to the global pharmaceutical industry. The country gained recognition as a hub for pharmaceutical research, development, and manufacturing.

Regulatory Changes: The pharmacy education landscape has witnessed changes in curriculum, accreditation, and quality assurance processes. Regulatory bodies like the All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) have also played a role in shaping pharmacy education.

Pharmacy Practice and Clinical Roles: The concept of pharmacy practice and clinical pharmacy gained prominence, emphasizing the role of pharmacists in patient care, medication therapy management, and counseling.

Modernization and Technology: Pharmacy education embraced modern technologies, such as e-learning, virtual laboratories, and online resources, enhancing the learning experience for students.

Global Collaboration: Indian pharmacy institutions started collaborating with international universities, exchanging knowledge and expertise to stay current with global advancements.

Future Outlook: The pharmacy education landscape in India continues to evolve, with a focus on research, innovation, and the integration of pharmaceutical sciences with healthcare delivery. Pharmacists are becoming more involved in patient care and public health initiatives.

In conclusion, the history of the pharmacy profession in India in relation to pharmacy education has evolved from traditional practices to a modern and dynamic field. The profession continues to contribute to healthcare, research, and industry, reflecting India’s significance in the global pharmaceutical landscape.

Indian Pharmaceutical Industry

In 1930, in Calcutta, the first pharmaceutical company called Bengal Chemicals and Pharmaceutical Works, which still is today as one of 5 government-owned drug manufacturers started The history of the Indian pharmaceutical market in the 1970s was almost non-existent. Initially, all the drugs were imported from Europe. Later some drugs of this system began to be manufactured in this country.

1901: Establishment of the Bengal Chemical and Pharmaceutical Works, Calcutta by Acharya P.C. Ray.

1903: A small factory at Parel (Bombay) by Prof. T.K. Gujjar.

1907: Alembic Chemical Works at Baroda by Prof. T.K. Gujjar.

The history and development of the Indian pharmaceutical industry have gone through several significant phases, leading to its growth as one of the world’s largest and most influential pharmaceutical markets. Here’s a brief overview:

Early Beginnings (Pre-20th Century):

  • Traditional Indian medicine systems, such as Ayurveda, Siddha, and Unani, have been practiced for centuries, using natural ingredients to treat ailments.
  • The colonial era saw the influence of Western medicine, leading to the establishment of pharmaceutical colleges and the introduction of modern drug manufacturing techniques.

Post-Independence Era (1950s-1970s):

  • After gaining independence in 1947, India focused on self-sufficiency and reducing dependence on foreign goods, including pharmaceuticals.
  • The Patents Act of 1970 was a landmark moment, allowing India to develop its generic drug industry by not recognizing product patents, but only process patents.

The emergence of the Generic Industry (1980s-1990s):

  • India became a hub for generic drug manufacturing, producing affordable versions of patented drugs, which significantly reduced healthcare costs.
  • The Indian pharmaceutical industry gained international recognition for its expertise in reverse engineering and cost-effective production.

Global Expansion (2000s-Present):

  • India’s pharmaceutical industry expanded its reach globally through exports and collaborations with international companies.
  • The industry became a significant player in Contract Research and Manufacturing Services (CRAMS), providing services to global pharmaceutical companies.
  • Indian companies increasingly focused on research and development (R&D) to develop novel drugs and improve their standing in the global innovation landscape.

Pharmaceutical organizations

The history and development of pharmaceutical organizations in India have evolved significantly over the years. Here’s a brief overview of key milestones and developments:

Early Years:

  • The pharmaceutical industry in India has its roots in the early 20th century when a few indigenous companies started manufacturing basic medicines.
  • Hindustan Antibiotics Limited (HAL) was one of the earliest pharmaceutical companies, established in 1954 in Pune.

1950s – 1970s:

  • The Indian pharmaceutical industry primarily focused on producing generic medicines, often imitating patented drugs.
  • The Patents Act of 1970 allowed India to produce patented drugs if they were not available in the country. This played a crucial role in the growth of the industry.

1980s – 1990s:

  • The Indian pharmaceutical sector expanded rapidly during this period, becoming one of the largest pharmaceutical producers in the world.
  • The industry gained recognition for producing affordable generic drugs, especially for infectious diseases.
  • Pharmaceutical Export Promotion Council (Pharmexcil) was established in 1986 to promote pharmaceutical exports from India.

2000s – Present:

  • India’s expertise in research and development (R&D) and cost-effective manufacturing continued to grow.
  • Multinational pharmaceutical companies started investing in research centers and manufacturing facilities in India.
  • The growth of contract research and manufacturing services (CRAMS) became a significant part of the industry.
  • The establishment of various regulatory bodies such as the Central Drugs Standard Control Organization (CDSCO) improved the quality and safety standards of drugs produced in India.
  • The National Pharmaceutical Pricing Authority (NPPA) was formed to regulate drug prices and ensure affordability.
  • India’s pharmaceutical industry played a crucial role in providing affordable antiretroviral drugs for HIV/AIDS treatment worldwide.
  • The introduction of the World Trade Organization’s Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) agreement led to changes in India’s patent laws, affecting the industry’s approach to generic drug production.
  • The industry continued to focus on expanding its product portfolio, including biotechnology and biosimilars.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Which is First Pharmacy College in India?

The first pharmacy college in India is the “Banaras Hindu University (BHU) – Institute of Medical Sciences” which was established in 1920. It offered a course in pharmacy, making it one of the earliest institutions for pharmaceutical education in the country.

Which is Pharmaceutical Industry in India?

The pharmaceutical industry is a vast sector, but one of the oldest and most renowned pharmaceutical companies in India is “Cipla.” It was founded in 1935 by Dr. K.A. Hamied and has since become a global player in the pharmaceutical market.

Who is the First Pharmacist in India?

The title of the first registered pharmacist in India goes to M.L. Schroff, who became a Registered Pharmacist under the Bombay Pharmacy Act in 1906.

Who is the first Female Pharmacist in India

The first female pharmacist in India is Minal Sen. She graduated in Pharmacy from Calcutta University in 1913, and she played a significant role in breaking gender barriers in the field of pharmacy. Minal Sen’s pioneering achievements paved the way for more women to enter the profession and make significant contributions to the pharmaceutical industry in India.


First Year B Pharm Notes, Syllabus, Books, PDF Subjectwise/Topicwise

F Y B Pharm Sem-IS Y B Pharm Sem-II
BP101T Human Anatomy and Physiology I TheoryBP201T Human Anatomy and Physiology II – Theory
BP102T Pharmaceutical Analysis I TheoryBP202T Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry I Theory
BP103T Pharmaceutics I TheoryBP203T Biochemistry – Theory
BP104T Pharmaceutical Inorganic Chemistry TheoryBP204T Pathophysiology – Theory
BP105T Communication skills TheoryBP205T Computer Applications in Pharmacy Theory
BP106RBT Remedial BiologyBP206T Environmental sciences – Theory
BP106RMT Remedial Mathematics TheoryBP207P Human Anatomy and Physiology II Practical
BP107P Human Anatomy and Physiology PracticalBP208P Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry I Practical
BP108P Pharmaceutical Analysis I PracticalBP209P Biochemistry Practical
BP109P Pharmaceutics I PracticalBP210P Computer Applications in Pharmacy Practical
BP110P Pharmaceutical Inorganic Chemistry Practical
BP111P Communication skills Practical
BP112RBP Remedial Biology Practical

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