May 19, 2024

To demonstrate the general neurological examination

To demonstrate the general neurological examination

Aim :
To demonstrate the general neurological examination.

Procedure :

It involves the following steps :

History Taking

Taking a careful history of the subject is of great importance and requires great skill. It helps a lot in a later physical examination in a case of neurological disease. Barriers to communication with a patient of low level of intelligence, or when he/she is confused, or not fully conscious include impatience, boredom, disbelief, embarrassment and reproach. In such cases, help should be taken from the patient’s attendants.

In neurology patients, the history of the progress of the disease will provide the following valuable information.

  • Parts of the nervous system involved, and
  • The nature of the underlying pathology.
    Understanding the pathological condition may lead the examiner to ask more questions for obtaining more information.

Common Signs and Symptoms of Neurological Disease:

The common signs and symptoms of neurological diseases are as follows :

  1. Speech and language defects such as dyarthria, dysphasia(cognitive disturbance ), and difficulty in communication.
  2. Partial unconsciousness (with restlessness) or coma.
  3. Altered behaviour and emotional state, eg, confusion, disorientation.
  4. Motor defects, eg, weakness, paralysis, fits (convulsions) , rigidity, tremors, involuntary movements, and alterations of gait.
  5. Sensory disturbances, eg, hyperesthesia, hypoesthesia, paraesthesia, general anaesthesia, analgesia, hyperalgesia, paralgesia, illusion, hallucination, etc.
  6. Effects of involvement of cranial nerves, eg, unilateral visual loss.

The major causes of these signs and symptoms are:

  • Vascular insults (haemorrhage, ischemic strokes)
  • Head and spinal injuries
  • Infections (bacterial and viral)
  • Nerve pressing by tumours, and so on

BP207P Human Anatomy and Physiology II Practical

To study the integumentary and special senses using specimens, models, etc.,
To study the nervous system using specimens, models, etc.,
To study the endocrine system using specimens, models, etc
To demonstrate the general neurological examination
To demonstrate the function of olfactory nerve
To examine the different types of taste.
To demonstrate the visual acuity
To demonstrate the reflex activity
Recording of body temperature
Determination of tidal volume and vital capacity.
Study of digestive, respiratory, cardiovascular systems, urinary and reproductive systems with the help of models, charts and specimens.
Recording of the basal mass index.
Study of family planning devices and pregnancy diagnosis test.
Demonstration of total blood count by cell analyzer
Permanent slides of vital organs and gonads


First Year B Pharm Notes, Syllabus, Books, PDF Subjectwise/Topicwise

F Y B Pharm Sem-IF Y B Pharm Sem-II
BP101T Human Anatomy and Physiology I TheoryBP201T Human Anatomy and Physiology II – Theory
BP102T Pharmaceutical Analysis I TheoryBP202T Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry I Theory
BP103T Pharmaceutics I TheoryBP203T Biochemistry – Theory
BP104T Pharmaceutical Inorganic Chemistry TheoryBP204T Pathophysiology – Theory
BP105T Communication skills TheoryBP205T Computer Applications in Pharmacy Theory
BP106RBT Remedial BiologyBP206T Environmental sciences – Theory
BP106RMT Remedial Mathematics TheoryBP207P Human Anatomy and Physiology II Practical
BP107P Human Anatomy and Physiology PracticalBP208P Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry I Practical
BP108P Pharmaceutical Analysis I PracticalBP209P Biochemistry Practical
BP109P Pharmaceutics I PracticalBP210P Computer Applications in Pharmacy Practical
BP110P Pharmaceutical Inorganic Chemistry Practical
BP111P Communication skills Practical
BP112RBP Remedial Biology Practical

Suggested readings

Recommended readings:

  • Can Olive Oil Help Prevent Dementia? Exploring the Evidence

  • Food Allergy and Asthma: The Potential Connection

  • Birth Trauma: Understanding the Impact and Path to Healing

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5UuQV-0o4CE