February 22, 2024

Functions of major physiological ions

Functions of major physiological ions

There are several major physiological ions that play important roles in various biological processes in the human body. Some of the key functions of these ions include:

  1. Sodium (Na+): Sodium is the primary extracellular ion and is involved in many physiological processes, including the regulation of blood volume and blood pressure, the transmission of nerve impulses, and the absorption of glucose and amino acids in the small intestine.
  2. Potassium (K+): Potassium is the primary intracellular ion and is involved in many physiological processes, including the regulation of fluid and electrolyte balance, the transmission of nerve impulses, and the contraction of skeletal and cardiac muscle.
  3. Calcium (Ca2+): Calcium is involved in many physiological processes, including the contraction of skeletal and cardiac muscle, the release of neurotransmitters, the regulation of enzyme activity, and the formation and maintenance of bones and teeth.
  4. Magnesium (Mg2+): Magnesium is involved in many physiological processes, including the production of ATP (the body’s primary energy source), the regulation of enzyme activity, the synthesis of DNA and RNA, and the maintenance of normal muscle and nerve function.
  5. Chloride (Cl-): Chloride is the major anion in extracellular fluid and is involved in many physiological processes, including the maintenance of fluid and electrolyte balance, the regulation of blood pH, and the formation of hydrochloric acid in the stomach.
  6. Bicarbonate (HCO3-): Bicarbonate is involved in the regulation of blood pH and is produced in the pancreas and kidneys. It acts as a buffer, helping to neutralize excess acid in the blood and maintain a healthy pH balance.

These physiological ions are critical for the proper functioning of various organ systems in the human body, and imbalances or deficiencies in these ions can lead to serious health problems. Therefore, maintaining proper levels of these ions is essential for overall health and well-being.

First Year B Pharm Notes, Syllabus, Books, PDF Subjectwise/Topicwise

F Y B Pharm Sem-IS Y B Pharm Sem-II
BP101T Human Anatomy and Physiology I TheoryBP201T Human Anatomy and Physiology II – Theory
BP102T Pharmaceutical Analysis I TheoryBP202T Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry I Theory
BP103T Pharmaceutics I TheoryBP203T Biochemistry – Theory
BP104T Pharmaceutical Inorganic Chemistry TheoryBP204T Pathophysiology – Theory
BP105T Communication skills TheoryBP205T Computer Applications in Pharmacy Theory
BP106RBT Remedial BiologyBP206T Environmental sciences – Theory
BP106RMT Remedial Mathematics TheoryBP207P Human Anatomy and Physiology II Practical
BP107P Human Anatomy and Physiology PracticalBP208P Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry I Practical
BP108P Pharmaceutical Analysis I PracticalBP209P Biochemistry Practical
BP109P Pharmaceutics I PracticalBP210P Computer Applications in Pharmacy Practical
BP110P Pharmaceutical Inorganic Chemistry Practical
BP111P Communication skills Practical
BP112RBP Remedial Biology Practical

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