Study of family planning devices and pregnancy diagnosis test.
Study of family planning devices
To study family planning devices.
Family planning e birth control is the process to prevent fertilization of ovum and sperm and thereby avoid pregnancy using various devices or medicines. Looking at long-term effects with minimum side effects use of devices is more common than the consumption of medicines,
The various family planning devices are as follows:
I. Barrier devices
II. Intrauterine devices (TUDs)
I. Barrier Devices
These devices are designed to prevent access of sperms to the female reproductive tract
(a) Male Barrier Devices:
Male Condom: The condom is the most widely used device by males. It is a non-porous elastic rubber sheath worn over the erected penis prior to the start of physical intercourse which physically blocks ejaculated sperm from entering the female reproductive tract. In addition, it gives protection against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) like AIDS, syphilis and gonorrhoea. It is a very cheap and highly effective contraceptive device.
(b) Female barriers devices:
- Diaphragm: It is the rubber dome structure which is fitted over the cervix by the female with or without spermicidal jelly. It is made from latex, silicone, or natural rubber. It works either by blocking access of sperms to the cervix or by killing them with spermicide.
- Female Condom: It is also called a vaginal pouch and is made up of two flexible rings connected by nitrile, latex or polyurethane sheath. One ring lying inside the sheath is inserted to fit in the cervix and the other ring remains outside the vagina and covers the external genitals. Use of appropriate creams, jellies, foams, suppositories, etc. in the female before intercourse, may be combined with barriers.
- Sponge: It is a soft foam containing spermicide which is inserted into the vagina to cover the cervix. It must be moistened with water to activate spermicide that kills sperms and prevent their entry into the cervix. It should not be kept in the vagina for more than 30 hrs.
- Cervical Cap: It is made up of silicone which fits over the cervix and blocks sperm from entering the uterus through the external orifice of the uterus.
II. Intrauterine Devices (IUDs)
IUD is made up of either plastic or metal that is placed in the uterus. IUDs are of two types viz. non-hormonal copper IUDs and hormonal IUDs. Copper IUDs (E.g. Copper T) work by disrupting
sperm motility and damaging sperms by their spermicidal action. The hormonal IUDs contain progesterone which acts by blocking endometrial proliferation making it unsuitable for fertilization and preventing sperm penetration by increasing the viscosity of cervical mucus. IUDs have a major advantage of long-term use (6-10 years) with the flexibility to remove when desired.
These are small tubes which are placed under the skin of the upper arm. Hormones from these tubes prevent sperms from approaching the egg and inhibit the release of an egg.
Study of Pregnancy Diagnosis Test
To study pregnancy diagnosis tests.
Anyone marketed single-use pregnancy detection kit (which contains 1 test device and 1 disposable dropper, vial), urine sample.
A pregnancy test helps to determine whether a woman is pregnant or not. The fertilized egg secretes the hormone called Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG) which is found in urine during early pregnancy. When urine sample of pregnant women is reacted with specific HCG antibodies precipitation, haemagglutination or complement fixation-like reaction occurs which is used as a diagnostic test for pregnancy. These tests can be performed using immunological, biological and radiological techniques
I. Immunological tests: These are commonly used and performed with the help of readily available marketed kits based on the reaction between urine HCG and specific HCG antibodies.
Working Principle of Immunological Test:
This test gives qualitative detection of HCG in the urine. It is based on the combination of urine HCG with monoclonal antibody-dye conjugate and polyclonal HCG antibodies present on the strip of a diagnostic kit. A urine sample is applied to the test zone of the strip. If HCG is present, an antibody-HCG-antibody dye complex will be formed and a pink-purple coloured band develops. A control zone is provided to check the potency of the test reagents, flow and volume of urine added.
- Biological tests involve the injection of urine samples into various animals. They are accurate but time-consuming and costly.
- Radiological tests are performed by Radioimmunoassay (RIA) and Enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA) techniques using radio-labelled HCG and its specific antibodies.
- Ultrasonography is a reliable method for detecting pregnancy which uses pulses of ultrasonic waves at high frequency on various parts of the uterus. The echoes (reflected waves) are displayed on the ultrasound screen and thereby confirm pregnancy. The pregnancy can be evident as early as the 5th week.
- Collect the first urine sample in the morning in a clean container (The first few ml of urine shall be discarded and then collected).
- Add 2-3 drops of urine on the strip and observe the colour change of the bands, if any, on the test and control zones.
- Read the results as positive (i.e. development of pink or purple colour on both control and test zone) or negative (i.e. development of pink or purple colour only on control zone).
Note: False positive (test is positive but the female is not pregnant) or false negative (test is negative but the female is pregnant) result is the major limitation of this test.
|Sl. No||Test results||Major reason|
|1.||False positive||Excess protein Blood in urine HCG production due to cancerous condition Diuretics|
|2.||False Negative||Too early testing Ectopic pregnancy Benzodiazepines|
BP207P Human Anatomy and Physiology II Practical
To study the integumentary and special senses using specimens, models, etc.,
To study the nervous system using specimens, models, etc.,
To study the endocrine system using specimens, models, etc
To demonstrate the general neurological examination
To demonstrate the function of olfactory nerve
To examine the different types of taste.
To demonstrate the visual acuity
To demonstrate the reflex activity
Recording of body temperature
Determination of tidal volume and vital capacity.
Study of digestive, respiratory, cardiovascular systems, urinary and reproductive systems with the help of models, charts and specimens.
Recording of the basal mass index.
Study of family planning devices and pregnancy diagnosis test.
Demonstration of total blood count by cell analyzer
Permanent slides of vital organs and gonads
First Year B Pharm Notes, Syllabus, Books, PDF Subjectwise/Topicwise
शैक्षणिक वर्ष 2022-23 मधील तांत्रिक व्यावसायिक अभ्यासक्रमांना प्रवेशासाठी लागणारी आवश्यक प्रमाणपत्रे
Dr Yellapgrada Subba Rao
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