February 22, 2024

Factors affecting Rate of Filtration and Evaporation (Surface area, Concentration and Thickness/ viscosity)

Factors affecting Rate of Filtration and Evaporation (Surface area, Concentration and Thickness/ viscosity)

Pharmaceutical Engineering Practical Lab Manual PDF Download

To study the effect of various factors on the rate of filtration.

Apparatus:

Beaker
Filter paper
Measuring cylinder

Principle:

Filtration is a process of where by solid particles present in a suspension are separated from the liquid or gas employing a porous medium. Which retains the solid but allows the fluid to pass through the volume of the filtrate obtained through the filter paper per unit time is called “rate of filtration” can be given by mathematical equation.
dv/dt = K.A . ⌂P/µL – darcy’s law

where,
A = area of filter
⌂P = pressure drop across the filter medium and cake
µ = viscosity of filtrate L = thickness of cake
V = volume of the filtrate T = time taken for filtration
K = constant for the filter medium and filter cake or resistance

Procedure:

a) Effect of thickness of cake:

Prepare two solutions of calcium carbonate using water as the solvent the concentration of the solutions are 5% and 10% respectively. Filter them and note the time taken for filtration to calculate the rate of filtration and compare them.

b) Effect of viscosity:

Effect of viscosity causing two solutions one with water and other with mixture of glycerine and water (20:80) ratio respectively. Prepare two different solutions of 5% calcium carbonate (CaCo3) using above prepared water and glycerine mixture. Filter them and note the time for filtration to calculate the rate of filtration and compare them.

c) Effect of area:

This can be determined by using funnel of large (big) and small area for the same concentration of the solutions (5% CaCo3) time taken for filtrations are noted. Calculate the rate of filtration and compare them.

d) Effect of pressure:

Prepare two solutions of calcium carbonate (5% CaCo3) using water as a solvent filter one of the solutions through Buchner funnel. Which is connected to a suction pump and the other one is filtered through without suction pump and note the time taken for filtrate. Calculate the rate of filtration and compare them

Calculation:

Effect of thickness of cake:

Sample: 50 ml of 5% CaCo3

50 ml of 10% CaCo3

SampleTime    Taken For FiltrationVolume of FiltrateRate of Filtration
5% CaCo35 minutes (300 seconds)34 ml34/300 = 0.1134 ml/sec
  10% CaCo37 minutes (420 seconds)  40 ml  40/420 = 0.0952 ml/sec

Effect of viscosity:

Sample: 50 ml of 5% CaCo3
50 ml of 10% CaCo3 (Glycerine and water mixture 20:80)

SampleTime    Taken For FiltrationVolume of FiltrateRate of Filtration
5% CaCo38 minutes (480 seconds)35 ml35/480 = 0.0729 ml/sec
5% CaCo3 with glycerin and water mixture6 minutes (360 seconds)  44 ml  44/360= 0.1222 ml/sec

Effect of an area of the funnel:

Sample: 50 ml of 5% CaCo3

SampleTime Taken For FiltrationVolume of FiltrateRate of Filtration
5% CaCo3 filter in small funnel7 minutes42 ml0.1 ml/sec
10% CaCo3 filter in big funnel7 minutes40 ml0.09 ml/ sec

Effect of pressure:

Sample: 50 ml of 5% CaCo3 (glycerine water mixture 20:80)

SampleTime Taken For FiltrationVolume of FiltrateRate of Filtration
5% CaCo3 filter with pressure36 seconds46 ml1.27 ml/sec
10% CaCo3 filter without pressure6 minutes42 ml0.116 ml/ sec

Report:

Rate of filtration in thickness

5% caco3 =
10% caco3 =

Rate of filtration in viscosity

5% caco3 =
5% caco3 with glycerine = Water mixture

Rate of filtration in area

5% caco3 in small funnel = 5% caco3 in big funnel =

Rate of filtration in pressure

5% caco3 with pressure = 5% caco3 without pressure =


AIM:

To study the effect of various factors on the rate of evaporation.

Principle:

Evaporationis the process by which liquid water goes directly to the vapour phase due to an increase in temperature. The main objective of evaporation is to get a concentrated product by vaporizing volatile liquid.Evaporation is conducted by non-volatile solute and volatile solvent to produce thick liquor. Rate of evaporation is controlled by rate of heat transfer.
Objectives of evaporation:

Evaporation is done by following,

 To get a concentrated product
 To remove water from an aqueous solution
 To evaporate sea water for developing drinking water
 To get solid from water which is used in boiler for chemical process

Factors influencing evaporation:

  1. Temperature
    The evaporation rate is directly related to the temperature. As the temperature increases, the rate of evaporation also increases because the temperature is rising the water molecules begin to move faster.
  2. Surface area
    The rate of evaporation is directly proportional to the surface area of the vessel exposed to evaporation.
  3. Agitation
    Agitation is necessary for evaporation.
  4. Vapour pressure
    Liquids with a low boiling point evaporate quickly due to high vapour pressure.
  5. Types of products required
    The selection of the method and apparatus to be used for evaporation depends upon the type of product required for example open pan produce liquid or dry concentrate while a film evaporator yield liquid concentrates.
  6. Density
    As the density increases, the rate of evaporation decreases.
  7. Time of evaporation
    Exposure to a relatively high temperature for a short time may be less destructive to the active ingredients than a lower temperature with exposure for a longer period.
  8. Economic factors
    When selecting the method and apparatus the economic factors are important. Evaporators are designed to give maximum heat transfer to liquid.
  9. Moisture content
    Some drug constituents decompose more rapidly in the presence of moisture, especially at raised temperatures.

Effect of surface area on the rate of evaporation:

Requirements:

 Three Petri dishes of diameter 2.50 cm, 5 cm, 7.5 cm with cover, 10 ml of the pipette and stopwatch

Procedure:

 Clean and dry all Petri plates and mark them as A, B, and C.
 Pipette out of 10 ml diethyl ether in each of the Petri dishes A, B, and C and cover them immediately.
 All the Petri dish heated in water at constant temperature for 10 minutes

 Note the remaining volume after 10 minutes
 From the rate of evaporation is calculated Effect of viscosity on the rate of evaporation: Requirements:
 Glycerine, distilled water, beaker, measuring cylinder.

Procedure:

 Different concentrations of glycerine and water are prepared in different beakers.
Note the weight of the beaker containing glycerine- water mixture.
 All the beakers are heated in water at a constant temperature for 10 minutes.
 Again note the weight of the beakers after heating.
 The difference between the weights is measured. The difference indicated the amount of water evaporated for 10 minutes.
 The rate of evaporation is calculated

Effect of concentration on the rate of evaporation:

Procedure:

 Clean all the glassware
 Prepare different concentration (2%, 4%, 6%, 8%) solution of sodium chloride in 50 ml water in different beakers
 Weigh of the beaker containing sodium chloride solution
 All the beakers are heated in water at constant temperature for 10 minutes
 Again weigh the beakers after heating
 The difference between weights is measured. The difference indicated the amount of water evaporated during 10 minutes
 From this rate of evaporation is calculated.

Effect of Surface area

Petridish MarkedDiameter of PetridishVolume TakenRemaining VolumeThe Volume of Liquid EvaporatedRate of Evaporation (ml/sec)
A2.510 ml   
B510 ml   
C7.510 ml   

Effect of Viscosity

Glycerin (ml)Water (ml)Concentration % V/VInitial Weight of Solution (g)Final Weight (g)Weight of Water EvaporatedRate of Evaporation g/sec
252%    
4104%    
6156%    
8208%    
102510%    

Effect of Concentration

Concentration % W/VInitial Weight of Solution (g)Final Weight of Solution (g)Weight of Water EvaporatedTime of HeatingRate of Evaporation (g/sec)
2%20    
4%20    
6%20    
8%20    

Pharm Engg Chapterwise MCQ: UNIT-I MCQ * Flow of fluids * Size reduction * Size separation UNIT-II MCQ *Heat transfer *Distillation *Evaporation UNIT-III MCQ *Drying * Mixing UNIT-IV MCQ * Filtration * Centrifugation * UNIT-V MCQ Materials of construction * Corrosion


Pharmaceutical Engineering Practical Lab Manual PDF Download

I. Determination of radiation constant of brass, iron, unpainted and painted glass.
II. Steam distillation – To calculate the efficiency of steam distillation.
III. To determine the overall heat transfer coefficient by the heat exchanger.
IV. Construction of drying curves (for calcium carbonate and starch).
V. Determination of moisture content and loss on drying.
VI. Determination of humidity of the air – i) From wet and dry bulb temperatures –use of Dew point method.
VII. Description of Construction working and application of Pharmaceutical Machinery such as rotary tablet machine, fluidized bed coater, fluid energy mill, dehumidifier.
VIII. Size analysis by sieving – To evaluate size distribution of tablet granulations – Construction of various size frequency curves including arithmetic and logarithmic probability plots.
IX. Size reduction: To verify the laws of size reduction using a ball mill and determining Kicks, Rittinger’s, Bond’s coefficients, power requirement and critical speed of Ball Mill.
X. Demonstration of colloid mill, planetary mixer, fluidized bed dryer, freeze dryer and such other major equipment.
XI. Factors affecting Rate of Filtration and Evaporation (Surface area, Concentration and Thickness/ viscosity)
XII. To study the effect of time on the Rate of Crystallization.
XIII. To calculate the uniformity Index for a given sample by using Double Cone Blender.


Second Year B Pharm Notes, Syllabus, Books, PDF Subjectwise/Topicwise

S Y B Pharm Sem IIIS Y B Pharm Sem IV
BP301T Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry II TheoryBP401T Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry III Theory
BP302T Physical Pharmaceutics I TheoryBP402T Medicinal Chemistry I Theory
BP303T Pharmaceutical Microbiology TheoBP403T Physical Pharmaceutics II Theory
BP304T Pharmaceutical Engineering TheoryBP404T Pharmacology I Theory
BP305P Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry II PracticalBP405T Pharmacognosy I Theory
BP306P Physical Pharmaceutics I PracticalBP406P Medicinal Chemistry I Practical
BP307P Pharmaceutical Microbiology PracticalBP407P Physical Pharmaceutics II Practical
BP308P Pharmaceutical Engineering PracticalBP408P Pharmacology I Practical
BP409P Pharmacognosy I Practical

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