September 30, 2023

Examination of the Different Types of Taste: Human Anatomy and Physiology Practical

To examine the different types of taste: Human Anatomy and Physiology Practical


To examine the different types of taste.


Sucrose solution (10%), sodium chloride solution (15%), acetic acid solution (1%), Ipecac solution (0.1%), dropper bottles, a hand lens, cotton swabs, four cards with sweet, salt, sour and bitter printed on them.


The primary taste sensations include sweet, sour, salty and bitter. The taste (also called gustatory) receptors responsible for the sensation of these tastes are located in the taste buds of different regions of the tongue. The sweet taste is experienced near the tip of the tongue, salt on the sides and top, bitter in the posterior part, and sour sensation in between these areas.

The perception of taste occurs through the pathway summarized below:

  • Gustatory receptors get activated upon receiving chemical stimuli from the food after dissolving in saliva.
  • The activated gustatory receptors conduct the impulse via the facial nerve (VII) from the anterior 2/3 of the tongue; glossopharyngeal nerve (IX) from the posterior 1/31% of the tongue and vagus(X) from the throat and epiglottis.
  • The impulses are conducted to medulla oblongata and project to the limbic system, hypothalamus and thalamus.
  • The nerve fibres from the thalamus extend to the primary gustatory area in the parietal cerebral cortex and result in the perception of taste.


  1. Select healthy human subjects.
  2. Ask the subject to protrude his tongue. The tip of the tongue may be held with gauze if required.
  3. Examine and identify the areas on the tongue having large concentrations of papillae and taste buds. Locate the fungiform and circumvallate papillae as shown in the figure.
  4. Ask the subject to rinse the mouth with water and dry it with gauze. Moisten a swab with a few drops of sugar solution and apply it to the tip of the tongue. Ask him/her to indicate, the taste experienced with the help of printed cards without withdrawing the tongue.
  5. Repeat the procedure with all remaining solutions by applying them one by one, on the sides near the tip, the anterior 2/3, and the posterior 1/3 of the tongue. Care must be taken to avoid spreading of test solution across the midline.
  6. Record the results as per taste perceived, and grade the intensity of taste sensation as per the following scale

Intense (+ + + +), moderate (+ + +), mild (+ +), slight (+), absent (0).

Observation Table:

BP207P Human Anatomy and Physiology II Practical

To study the integumentary and special senses using specimens, models, etc.,
To study the nervous system using specimens, models, etc.,
To study the endocrine system using specimens, models, etc
To demonstrate the general neurological examination
To demonstrate the function of olfactory nerve
To examine the different types of taste.
To demonstrate the visual acuity
To demonstrate the reflex activity
Recording of body temperature
Determination of tidal volume and vital capacity.
Study of digestive, respiratory, cardiovascular systems, urinary and reproductive systems with the help of models, charts and specimens.
Recording of the basal mass index.
Study of family planning devices and pregnancy diagnosis test.
Demonstration of total blood count by cell analyzer
Permanent slides of vital organs and gonads

First Year B Pharm Notes, Syllabus, Books, PDF Subjectwise/Topicwise

F Y B Pharm Sem-IF Y B Pharm Sem-II
BP101T Human Anatomy and Physiology I TheoryBP201T Human Anatomy and Physiology II – Theory
BP102T Pharmaceutical Analysis I TheoryBP202T Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry I Theory
BP103T Pharmaceutics I TheoryBP203T Biochemistry – Theory
BP104T Pharmaceutical Inorganic Chemistry TheoryBP204T Pathophysiology – Theory
BP105T Communication skills TheoryBP205T Computer Applications in Pharmacy Theory
BP106RBT Remedial BiologyBP206T Environmental sciences – Theory
BP106RMT Remedial Mathematics TheoryBP207P Human Anatomy and Physiology II Practical
BP107P Human Anatomy and Physiology PracticalBP208P Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry I Practical
BP108P Pharmaceutical Analysis I PracticalBP209P Biochemistry Practical
BP109P Pharmaceutics I PracticalBP210P Computer Applications in Pharmacy Practical
BP110P Pharmaceutical Inorganic Chemistry Practical
BP111P Communication skills Practical
BP112RBP Remedial Biology Practical

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