July 20, 2024

Equipment employed in large-scale sterilization.

Equipment employed in large-scale sterilization.

Large-scale sterilization is essential in industries such as pharmaceuticals, healthcare facilities, food processing, and research laboratories. Several equipment and methods are employed to achieve effective sterilization on a large scale. Here are some commonly used equipment for large-scale sterilization:


Autoclaves are widely used for large-scale sterilization in healthcare and laboratory settings. They use high-pressure steam to kill microorganisms. Autoclaves come in various sizes, from small benchtop units to large industrial models, and they can accommodate a range of items, including equipment, glassware, and media.

Types of Autoclaves: There are different types of autoclaves, each designed for specific applications:

  1. Gravity Autoclaves: These autoclaves use gravity to remove air from the chamber before steam is introduced. They are suitable for general sterilization applications.
  2. Pre-Vacuum Autoclaves: These autoclaves create a vacuum in the chamber before introducing steam. This helps in better air removal and is suitable for sterilizing porous materials and instruments.
  3. Steam Flush Pressure-Pulse Autoclaves: This type of autoclave alternates between steam and pressure pulses to achieve better penetration of steam into wrapped materials and porous loads.

Dry Heat Sterilizers:

Dry heat sterilizers use hot air to achieve sterilization. They are suitable for heat-resistant items that cannot be exposed to moisture, such as glassware, metal instruments, and certain powders. Dry heat sterilizers are commonly used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and research laboratories.

Dry heat sterilizers consist of an insulated chamber with heating elements that generate and maintain high temperatures. The chamber temperature is controlled and monitored through advanced temperature control systems. Air circulation systems ensure uniform heat distribution, preventing cold spots within the chamber.


  1. Moisture-Free Process: Dry heat sterilization is ideal for items that cannot tolerate moisture. It prevents the risk of material degradation, such as rusting or oxidation of metal instruments.
  2. Compatibility: This method is suitable for a wide range of materials, including glass, metals, and certain plastics.
  3. Minimal Residue: Unlike steam sterilization, dry heat sterilization doesn’t leave behind residues that could potentially interact with the product.
  4. Uniformity: With proper air circulation, dry heat sterilizers can ensure uniform temperature distribution, minimizing the risk of under- or over-sterilization.

Tunnel Sterilizers:

Tunnel sterilizers, also known as continuous sterilizers, are used for the large-scale sterilization of packaged products. They consist of a conveyor belt system that carries the product through a controlled high-temperature environment, typically using hot air or steam. Tunnel sterilizers are commonly used in the food and beverage industry for sterilizing packaged products.

Advantages: Tunnel sterilizers offer several advantages for large-scale pharmaceutical sterilization:

  • High Throughput: These systems can process a large number of containers in a continuous manner, making them suitable for high-volume production.
  • Uniform Sterilization: Proper design ensures that containers receive uniform heat distribution, resulting in consistent and reliable sterilization.
  • Energy Efficiency: Some models are designed for energy-efficient operation, reducing utility costs.
  • Compliance: Tunnel sterilizers are designed to meet regulatory standards for pharmaceutical manufacturing.

Filtration Systems:

Filtration is a widely used method for sterilizing heat-sensitive liquids and gases. Large-scale filtration systems incorporate various filters, such as membrane filters or depth filters, to remove microorganisms from the liquid or gas stream. These systems are used in industries such as pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, and food and beverage.

Advantages of Filtration:

  • Suitable for Heat-Sensitive Materials: Filtration is ideal for materials that cannot withstand high temperatures used in methods like autoclaving.
  • Preserves Product Quality: Since filtration doesn’t involve extreme temperatures, it helps maintain the quality, stability, and functionality of sensitive pharmaceutical products.
  • Versatile: Filtration can be applied to various substances, including liquids, gases, and air.
  • Scalability: Filtration systems are adaptable to both small-scale and large-scale production processes.
  • Minimal Chemical Usage: Unlike some sterilization methods that require chemicals, filtration typically involves minimal or no use of chemicals, reducing the risk of chemical residue in the final product.

Irradiation Equipment:

Radiation sterilization uses ionizing radiation, such as gamma rays or electron beams, to kill microorganisms. Large-scale irradiation facilities employ specialized equipment that can handle high volumes of products, such as medical devices, pharmaceuticals, and certain food products. Radiation sterilization is widely used in industries where other sterilization methods may be impractical or damaging to the products.

Chemical Sterilization Systems:

Chemical sterilization methods involve the use of sterilizing agents, such as hydrogen peroxide or ethylene oxide (EtO), to kill microorganisms. Large-scale chemical sterilization systems are used in industries such as healthcare, pharmaceuticals, and food processing. These systems often consist of enclosed chambers or rooms where items or products are exposed to the sterilizing agent in a controlled environment.

1. Ethylene Oxide (EO) Sterilization: Ethylene oxide is a commonly used chemical sterilization method for heat- and moisture-sensitive items. It involves exposing items to a mixture of EO gas and other gases under controlled temperature and humidity conditions. EO gas penetrates packaging materials and effectively destroys microorganisms by disrupting their cellular structures. However, EO sterilization requires aeration to remove residual gas from the sterilized items, and its use is subject to strict safety regulations due to its potential health and environmental risks.

2. Hydrogen Peroxide Vapor Sterilization: Hydrogen peroxide vapor (HPV) sterilization involves exposing items to a vaporized form of hydrogen peroxide. The vapor diffuses into the material and deactivates microorganisms through oxidation. HPV sterilization can be used for heat-sensitive equipment, isolators, and cleanrooms. It is considered an environmentally friendly option as it breaks down into water and oxygen.

3. Peracetic Acid Sterilization: Peracetic acid is a strong oxidizing agent that is effective in killing a wide range of microorganisms, including spores. It can be used for heat-sensitive items and equipment. Peracetic acid sterilization requires specialized equipment to control the concentration and exposure time to ensure effective sterilization and avoid material damage.

4. Ozone Sterilization: Ozone is a powerful oxidizing agent that can be used for the sterilization of air, surfaces, and water. It breaks down microbial structures through oxidation. Ozone sterilization is suitable for cleanrooms, isolators, and equipment surfaces. However, ozone is potentially harmful to humans, so proper ventilation and safety measures are essential.

5. Chlorine Dioxide Sterilization: Chlorine dioxide is an effective sterilant used for decontaminating surfaces, equipment, and water. It has a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity and is particularly useful against spores. Chlorine dioxide can be used in gaseous or aqueous forms.

6. Formaldehyde Sterilization: Formaldehyde gas can be used for the sterilization of equipment, surfaces, and rooms. It reacts with microbial proteins and nucleic acids, rendering them nonfunctional. Formaldehyde gas is effective but has potential health hazards and environmental concerns, so its use is decreasing in favor of safer alternatives.

Steam-in-Place (SIP) Systems:

Steam-in-Place systems are used for the sterilization of large equipment and piping systems in pharmaceutical and biotechnology manufacturing. These systems generate and distribute high-pressure steam throughout the equipment, ensuring effective sterilization. It involves the use of high-temperature steam to disinfect and sterilize equipment and components in place, without the need for disassembly.

The process involves the following steps:

  1. Preparation: Before starting the SIP cycle, the equipment or system to be sterilized is properly prepared. This includes ensuring that all connections are sealed, valves are properly positioned, and any excess fluids or residues are removed.
  2. Steam Injection: Once prepared, steam is introduced into the equipment at a predetermined pressure and temperature. The steam displaces the air inside the system, creating a controlled environment conducive to sterilization.
  3. Exposure Time: The equipment is exposed to steam for a specific duration, which depends on factors such as the type of equipment, its size, and the level of required sterilization. The exposure time ensures that the heat and moisture effectively kill or inactivate microorganisms, including spores.
  4. Cooling and Draining: After the sterilization cycle, the steam is gradually released, and the system is allowed to cool down. The condensed steam (condensate) is typically drained from the system.
  5. Validation and Monitoring: The SIP process is monitored and validated to ensure its effectiveness. This includes verifying that the specified temperature and pressure conditions were achieved throughout the process. Validation involves using temperature sensors, pressure gauges, and other monitoring equipment.

Isolators and Restricted Access Barrier Systems (RABS):

Isolators and Restricted Access Barrier Systems (RABS) are advanced containment technologies used in the pharmaceutical industry to ensure a high level of sterility and product protection during various manufacturing processes, including large-scale sterilization. These systems play a crucial role in maintaining aseptic conditions, preventing contamination, and ensuring the safety and efficacy of pharmaceutical products. Let’s delve into the details of isolators and RABS and their applications in large-scale sterilization:

1. Isolators: An isolator is a sealed, enclosed environment designed to provide a highly controlled and sterile environment for the manipulation of pharmaceutical products. It is a physical barrier that isolates the product and the operator from the external environment, minimizing the risk of contamination. Isolators can be used for various operations, including manufacturing, filling, and sterilization processes.

Key Features of Isolators:

  • Isolators are equipped with a controlled atmosphere, including temperature, humidity, and pressure, to maintain optimal conditions for sterile processing.
  • Glove ports or robotic arms allow operators to interact with the product while maintaining a physical barrier between them and the product.
  • HEPA (High-Efficiency Particulate Air) or ULPA (Ultra-Low Penetration Air) filters ensure the air inside the isolator is free from particles and microorganisms.
  • Gas sterilization or vaporized hydrogen peroxide (VHP) systems are often used to sterilize the isolator’s interior before and after use.

Applications in Sterilization: Isolators are used in various sterilization processes, such as terminal sterilization of prefilled syringes, vials, and ampoules. The sterilized products are loaded into the isolator, and the interior environment is sterilized before the process begins. This prevents the introduction of contaminants and ensures that the product remains sterile throughout the process.

2. Restricted Access Barrier Systems (RABS): RABS is a hybrid technology that provides a level of containment similar to isolators while offering some advantages of open cleanrooms. RABS systems are designed to reduce the risk of contamination by restricting access to the critical processing area. They combine the benefits of isolators with the flexibility of traditional cleanroom operations.

Key Features of RABS:

  • RABS systems consist of a rigid barrier, often with transparent walls, that separates the processing area from the operator and external environment.
  • Gloves or robotic arms allow limited access to the product while maintaining a physical barrier.
  • HEPA or ULPA filters ensure clean and sterile air within a controlled environment.
  • RABS systems often include a sterilization system, such as VHP, to maintain aseptic conditions.

Applications in Sterilization: RABS systems are commonly used in sterile filling and capping processes, including large-scale sterilization. They prevent contamination during critical operations by limiting operator interaction with the product while allowing real-time process monitoring.

Both isolators and RABS systems offer enhanced sterility assurance and protection for pharmaceutical products during large-scale sterilization processes. The choice between these technologies depends on factors such as the specific process requirements, product characteristics, regulatory considerations, and the desired level of containment. These advanced containment solutions contribute to the pharmaceutical industry’s commitment to producing safe and high-quality products for patients.

Supercritical fluid sterilization

Supercritical fluid sterilization is an innovative method used for the large-scale sterilization of pharmaceutical products. It utilizes supercritical fluids, which are substances that exist at a temperature and pressure beyond their critical point, to achieve sterilization. In this context, supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) is the most commonly used supercritical fluid.

The critical point of a substance is the specific temperature and pressure at which it transitions from a gas to a liquid phase. Beyond the critical point, the substance exhibits unique properties that make it an effective medium for sterilization.

Process of Supercritical Fluid Sterilization:

  1. Preparation of Equipment: The pharmaceutical products to be sterilized are placed in a sterilization chamber or chamber rack within the supercritical fluid sterilization system. This chamber is designed to withstand the high pressures and temperatures required for the process.
  2. Pressurization: Carbon dioxide gas is pressurized to a point beyond its critical point (approximately 73.8 bar or 1071 psi and 31.1°C or 88°F). At these conditions, carbon dioxide becomes a supercritical fluid with properties that enable it to efficiently penetrate materials and exert its sterilizing effects.
  3. Exposure: The supercritical carbon dioxide is introduced into the sterilization chamber containing the pharmaceutical products. The supercritical fluid can easily permeate packaging materials, containers, and other surfaces, including hard-to-reach areas that might be challenging for other sterilization methods.
  4. Sterilization: The supercritical carbon dioxide, in its dense phase, interacts with microbial cells and spores. The supercritical fluid’s properties, including its low viscosity and high diffusivity, allow it to effectively penetrate and disrupt microbial structures, resulting in cell death and sterilization.
  5. Extraction: After the exposure period, the supercritical fluid containing sterilization byproducts is extracted from the chamber. The pressure is reduced, causing the supercritical carbon dioxide to return to its gas state, leaving behind no residue or harmful chemicals.

Advantages of Supercritical Fluid Sterilization:

  1. Non-Toxic and Residue-Free: Supercritical carbon dioxide is non-toxic, non-flammable, and environmentally friendly. It leaves no residue on the sterilized products, making it suitable for medical devices, pharmaceuticals, and sensitive materials.
  2. Effective Penetration: The supercritical fluid’s low viscosity and high diffusivity enable it to permeate materials effectively, ensuring thorough sterilization even in complex geometries.
  3. Temperature Control: The process operates at relatively low temperatures compared to traditional sterilization methods, reducing the risk of heat-induced degradation of sensitive materials.
  4. Time Efficiency: The process is relatively quick, contributing to enhanced productivity in large-scale manufacturing.
  5. Minimal Environmental Impact: Supercritical fluid sterilization reduces the need for harsh chemicals and excessive energy, making it an environmentally friendly option.

Steam Sterilizers:

Steam sterilizers, also known as steam autoclaves, are used for the sterilization of large items or equipment that can withstand exposure to moisture and heat. They use pressurized steam to achieve sterilization and are commonly used in industries such as healthcare, pharmaceuticals, and research laboratories.

It is important to note that the choice of sterilization equipment depends on the specific requirements of the industry, the nature of the items or products to be sterilized, and the desired level of sterilization assurance. Different industries and applications may have additional specialized equipment and methods for large-scale sterilization.

Second Year B Pharm Notes, Syllabus, Books, PDF Subjectwise/Topicwise

S Y B Pharm Sem IIIS Y B Pharm Sem IV
BP301T Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry II TheoryBP401T Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry III Theory
BP302T Physical Pharmaceutics I TheoryBP402T Medicinal Chemistry I Theory
BP303T Pharmaceutical Microbiology TheoBP403T Physical Pharmaceutics II Theory
BP304T Pharmaceutical Engineering TheoryBP404T Pharmacology I Theory
BP305P Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry II PracticalBP405T Pharmacognosy I Theory
BP306P Physical Pharmaceutics I PracticalBP406P Medicinal Chemistry I Practical
BP307P Pharmaceutical Microbiology PracticalBP407P Physical Pharmaceutics II Practical
BP308P Pharmaceutical Engineering PracticalBP408P Pharmacology I Practical
BP409P Pharmacognosy I Practical

Suggested readings: