Table of contents
Microscopic study of epithelial and connective tissue
BP107P Human Anatomy and Physiology Practical
Ciliated Epithelium tissue
Ciliated columnar epithelial cells are rectangular in shape and have between 200 to 300 hair-like protrusions called cilia. The mitochondria are found toward the apical region of the cell while the cell nuclei are found towards the base and are often elongated. Cells are interconnected via desmosomses and tight junctions, creating a semipermeable membrane that is more selective that membrane found in other types of cells.
Cuboidal epithelia are epithelial cells having a cube-like shape; that is, their width is approximately equal to their height. They may exist in single layers (simple cuboidal epithelium) or multiple layers (stratified cuboidal epithelium) depending on their location (and thus function) in the body.
Stratified Columnar Epithelium :
Stratified columnar epithelia are found in the ocular conjunctiva of the eye, in parts of the pharynx and anus, the female’s uterus, the male urethra and vas deferens. Also found in Lobar ducts in salivary glands. The cells function in secretion and protection. In simple terms, we can say that the upper and lowermost layers of cells are columnar in shape. The middle layer contains cuboidal cells. It forms the lining of the respiratory tract, ureter, ovi duct ,etc.
Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium :
Stratified cuboidal epithelium is a type of epithelial tissue composed of multiple layers of cube-shaped cells.
Only the most superficial layer is made up of cuboidal cells, and the other layers can be cells of other types. This is because, conventionally, the naming of stratified epithelium is based on the type of cell in the most superficial layer.
Areolar connective tissue
Loose connective tissue is the most common type of connective tissue in vertebrates. It holds organs in place and attaches epithelial tissue to other underlying tissues. It also surrounds the blood vessels and nerves. Cells called fibroblasts are widely dispersed in this tissue; they are irregular branching cells that secrete strong fibrous proteins and proteoglycans as an extracellular matrix. The cells of this type of tissue are generally separated by quite some distance by a gelatinous substance primarily made up of collagenous and elastic fibers.
Hyaline cartilage is covered externally by a fibrous membrane, called the perichondrium, except at the articular ends of bones and also where it is found directly under the skin, i.e. ears and nose. This membrane contains vessels that provide the cartilage with nutrition.
Hyaline cartilage matrix is mostly made up of type II collagen and chondroitin sulfate, both of which are also found in elastic cartilage.
Hyaline cartilage exists on the ventral ends of ribs; in the larynx, trachea, and bronchi; and on the articular surface of bones