Lyme disease, also referred to as Lyme borreliosis, is an communicable disease caused by the Borrelia bacterium which is spread by ticks.
The most common sign of infection is an expanding red rash, referred to as erythema migrans, that appears at the location of the tick bite a few week after it occurred. The rash is usually neither itchy nor painful. Approximately 70–80% of infected people develop a rash.
Other early symptoms may include fever, headache and tiredness. If untreated, symptoms may include loss of the power to maneuver one or each side of the face, joint pains, severe headaches with neck stiffness, or heart palpitations, among others. Months to years later, repeated episodes of joint pain and swelling may occur.
Occasionally, people develop shooting pains or tingling in their arms and legs. Despite appropriate treatment, about 10 to twenty of individuals develop joint pains, memory problems, and tiredness for a minimum of six months.
Lyme disease is transmitted to humans by the bites of infected ticks of the Ixodes . within the us , ticks of concern are usually of the Ixodes scapularis type, and must be attached for a minimum of 36 hours before the bacteria can spread.
In Europe, ticks of the sheep-tick type may spread the bacteria more quickly. In North America, the bacteria Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia mayonii cause Lyme disease . In Europe and Asia, Borrelia afzelii and Borrelia garinii also are causes of the disease.
The disease doesn’t appear to be transmissible between people, by other animals, or through food. Diagnosis is predicated upon a mixture of symptoms, history of tick exposure, and possibly testing for specific antibodies within the blood. Blood tests are often negative within the early stages of the disease. Testing of individual ticks isn’t typically useful.
Prevention includes efforts to stop tick bites like by wearing clothing to hide the arms and legs, and using DEET-based insect repellents. Using pesticides to scale back tick numbers can also be effective. Ticks are often removed using tweezers. If the removed tick was filled with blood, one dose of doxycycline could also be wont to prevent development of infection, but isn’t generally recommended since development of infection is rare.
If an infection develops, variety of antibiotics are effective, including doxycycline, amoxicillin, and cefuroxime. Standard treatment usually lasts for 2 or three weeks. Some people develop a fever and muscle and joint pains from treatment which can last for one or two days. In those that develop persistent symptoms, long-term antibiotic therapy has not been found to be useful.
Lyme disease is that the commonest disease spread by ticks within the hemisphere . it’s estimated to affect 300,000 people a year within the us and 65,000 people a year in Europe. Infections are commonest within the spring and early summer.
Lyme disease was diagnosed as a separate condition for the primary time in 1975 in Old Lyme, Connecticut. it had been originally mistaken for juvenile atrophic arthritis . The bacterium involved was first described in 1981 by Willy Burgdorfer. Chronic symptoms following treatment are well described and are referred to as “post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome” (PTLDS). PTLDS is different from chronic Lyme disease; a term not supported by the scientific community and utilized in alternative ways by different groups. Some healthcare providers claim that PTLDS is caused by persistent infection, but are often this is often not believed to be true because no evidence of persistent infection can be found after standard treatment.
A vaccine for Lyme disease was marketed within the us between 1998 and 2002, but was withdrawn from the market thanks to poor sales. Research is ongoing to develop new vaccines.