Kawasaki disease (KD), or Mucocutaneous lymph gland syndrome

Kawasaki disease (KD), or mucocutaneous lymph gland syndrome, is an illness that causes inflammation in arteries, veins, and capillaries. It also affects your lymph nodes and causes symptoms in your nose, mouth, and throat. It’s the foremost common explanation for heart condition in children.

The Kawasaki disease Foundation (KDF) estimates that KD affects quite 4,200 children within the us annually . KD is additionally more common in boys than in girls and in children of Asian and Pacific Island descent. However, KD can affect children and teenagers of all racial and ethnic backgrounds.

In most cases, children will recover within a couple of days of treatment with none serious problems. Recurrences are uncommon. If left untreated, KD can cause serious heart condition . Read on to find out more about KD and the way to treat this condition.

What are the symptoms of Kawasaki disease?

Kawasaki disease occurs piecemeal with telltale symptoms and signs. The condition tends to seem during late winter and spring. In some Asian countries, cases of KD peak during the center of summer.

Early stages

Early symptoms, which may last up to 2 weeks, may include:

high fever that persists for five or more days

rash on the torso and groin

bloodshot eyes, without crusting

bright red, swollen lips

“strawberry” tongue, which appears shiny and bright with red spots

swollen lymph nodes

swollen hands and feet

red palms and soles of the feet

Heart problems can also appear during this point .

Late stages

Later symptoms begin within fortnight of the fever. The skin on the hands and feet of your child may start to peel and are available off in sheets. Some children can also develop temporary arthritis, or joint pain.

Other signs and symptoms include:

abdominal pain

vomiting

diarrhea

enlarged gallbladder

temporary deafness 

What causes Kawasaki disease?

The exact explanation for Kawasaki disease remains unknown. Researchers speculate that a mix of genetics and environmental factors can cause KD. this might flow from to the very fact that KD occurs during specific seasons and tends to affect children of Asian descent.

Risk factors

Kawasaki disease is commonest in children, particularly those of Asian descent. About 75 percent of KD cases are children under the age of 5, consistent with the KDF. Researchers don’t believe that you simply can inherit the disease, but the danger factors tend to extend within families. Siblings of somebody who has KD are 10 times more likely to possess the disease.

How is Kawasaki disease diagnosed?

There is no specific test for Kawasaki disease . A pediatrician will take under consideration the child’s symptoms and rule out illnesses with similar symptoms, such as:

scarlet fever, a bacterial infection that causes fever, chills, and pharyngitis 

juvenile atrophic arthritis , a chronic disease that causes joint pain and inflammation

measles

toxic shock syndrome

idiopathic juvenile arthritis

juvenile poisoning 

medical reaction

Rocky Mountain rickettsial disease , a tick-borne illness

A pediatrician might order additional tests to see how the disease has affected the guts . These may include:

Echocardiograph: An echocardiograph may be a painless procedure that uses sound waves to make pictures of the guts and its arteries. This test may have to be repeated to point out how Kawasaki disease has affected the guts over time.

Blood tests: Blood tests could also be ordered to rule out other illnesses. In KD, there could also be an elevated white blood corpuscle count, low red blood corpuscle count, and inflammation.

Chest X-ray: A chest X-ray creates black and white images of the guts and lungs. A doctor may order this test to seem for signs of coronary failure and inflammation.

Electrocardiogram: An electrocardiogram, or ECG, records the electrical activity of the guts . Irregularities within the ECG may indicate that the guts has been suffering from KD.

Kawasaki disease should be considered an opportunity in any infant or child who features a fever lasting quite five days. this is often especially the case if they’re showing other classic symptoms of the disease like peeling skin.

How is Kawasaki disease treated?

Children diagnosed with KD should begin treatment immediately to stop heart damage.

First-line treatment for KD involves an infusion of antibodies (intravenous immunoglobulin) over 12 hours within 10 days of the fever and a daily dosage of aspirin over subsequent four days. the kid may have to still take lower doses of aspirin for 6 to eight weeks after the fever goes away to stop the formation of blood clots.

One study also found that the addition of prednisolone significantly reduced potential heart damage. But this has yet to be tested in other populations.

Timing is critical for preventing serious heart problems. Studies also report a better rate of resistance to treatment when it’s given before the fifth day of the fever. About 11 to 23 percent of youngsters with KD will have a resistance.

Some children may require longer treatment time to stop a blocked artery or a attack . In these cases, treatment involves daily antiplatelet aspirin doses until they need a traditional echocardiograph. it’s going to take six to eight weeks for arteria coronaria abnormalities to reverse.

What are the possible complications of Kawasaki disease?

KD results in serious heart problems in about 25 percent of the youngsters who have the disease. Untreated KD can lead increase your risk for a attack and cause:

myocarditis, or inflammation of the guts muscle

dysrhythmia, or an abnormal cardiac rhythm 

aneurysm, or weakening and bulging of the artery wall

Treatment for this stage of the condition requires long-term dosing of aspirin. Patients can also got to take blood thinners or undergo procedures like coronary angioplasty, arteria coronaria stenting, or arteria coronaria bypass. Children who develop arteria coronaria problems thanks to KD should lookout to avoid lifestyle factors which will increase their risk for a attack . These factors include being obese or over weight, having high cholesterol, and smoking.

What’s the long-term outlook for Kawasaki disease?

There are four possible outcomes for somebody with KD:

You make a full recovery without heart problems, which needs early diagnosis and treatment.

You develop arteria coronaria problems. In 60 percent of those cases, patients are ready to reduce these concerns within a year.

You experience long-term heart problems, which needs long-term treatment.

You have a reoccurrence of KD, which happens in just 3 percent of cases.

KD features a positive outcome when diagnosed and treated early. With treatment, only 3 to five percent of KD cases develop with arteria coronaria problems. Aneurysms develop in 1 percent.

Children who have had Kawasaki disease should receive an echocardiogram all or two years to screen for heart problems.

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