November 28, 2023

Determination of Blood Pressure: Community Pharmacy, Remedial Biology Practical

Determination of Blood Pressure: Community Pharmacy, Remedial Biology Practical


 To measure the blood pressure by using a sphygmomanometer.


1.  Stethoscope

2.  Sphygmomanometer

1. STETHOSCOPE (Steth = Chest, Scope =Inspect)

What is a Stethoscope? What are the parts of a Stethoscope?

The instrument was introduced in its present form by Laennec in 1819. The instrument has the following 3 parts:
(a)  The chest piece: The chest price has 2 end pieces – a bell of the flat diaphragm, though some have only the diaphragm.
(b)  The rubber tubing: In the commonly used stethoscope, a single soft-rubber pressure tube leads from the chest piece to a metal ‘Y’ shaped connector. The plastic diaphragm causes magnification of low-pitched sounds though it distorts them a little. The bell-shaped chest price conducts sounds without distortion but with little magnification.
(c)  The ear frame: It consists of 2 curved metallic tubes joined together with a flat U shaped spring which keeps them pulled together. The upper ends of the tubes are curved so that they correspond to the curve of the external auditory meatus, i.e. they are directed downwards.

2. SPHYGMOMANOMETER (Commonly known as BP apparatus)

What is a Sphygmomanometer? What are the parts of a Sphygmomanometer?

It is the instrument routinely used for recording arterial BP in humans. It consists of the following parts:
1. Mercury Manometer: The manometer is fitted in the lid of the instrument. One arm of the manometer is the reservoir for mercury – a broad and short well that contains enough Hg to be driven up in the other limb.
2. Graduated tube: The manometer glass tube is graduated in mm, from 0-300, each division representing 2 mm, though actually slig1tly less than 2 mm.
A stopcock between the two limbs, when closed, prevents the Hg from entering the glass tube. The one-way valve fitted at the top of the Hg well prevents the spilling of Hg when the lid is closed.
3. The Armlet (Rubber Bag, Riva Rocci Cuff): The ‘cuff’ as it is usually called, consists of an inflatable rubber bag, 24 cm X 12 cm which is fitted with two Rubber tubes – One connecting it to a mercury reservoir and the other to a rubber bulb.
The rubber bag is 12 cm wide which is enough to form a pressure cone that reaches the underlying artery even in a thick arm.
4. Air Pump (Rubber bulb): It is an oval-shaped rubber bulb of a size that conveniently fits into one’s fist. It has a one-way valve at its free end and a leaking valve with a knurled screw at the other, where the rubber tube leading to the cuff is attached.

What is the recommended width of the bag of a Sphygmomanometer in the different age groups?

The recommended width of the bag in the different age groups is as under:
Infants (below 1year) : 2.5 cm
Below 4 years: 5 cm
Below 8 years: 8 cm
Adults:12 cm.


 The term blood pressure (BP) refers to the force exerted by the blood as it presses against and attempts to stretch the walls of the blood vessels.


A sufficient length of a single artery is selected in the arm or in the thigh. The artery is first compressed by inflating the rubber bag placed around the arm to stop the blood flow through the occluded section of the artery.


Time needed: 8 minutes

Measuring Blood Pressure

  1. Position

    Make the subject sit or lie supine and allow 5 minutes for mental and physical relaxation.

  2. Adjustment to ZERO level

    Open the lid of the apparatus until you hear the “click”. Release the lock on the Hg reservoir and check that the mercury is at the 0 levels. If it is above 0, subtract the difference from the final reading.

  3. Adjustment of CUFF position

    Place the cuff around the upper arm, with the centre of the bag lying over the brachial artery, keeping its lower edge about 3 cm above the elbow.

  4. Raise the pressure

    Palpate the radial artery at the wrist and feel its pulsations disappear, note the reading. Then raise the pressure up to 30-40 mm Hg.

  5. Release the pressure

    Open the leak valve and control it so that the pressure gradually falls in steps of 2-3 mm. Note the reading when the pulse just reappears.

  6. Recording the pressure

    Record the pressure in the other arm. Take 3 readings in each arm, deflecting the cuff for a few minutes between each determination.


      The BP was found to be     ______________.

Human Anatomy and Physiology Practical Syllabus

  1. Study of a compound microscope.
  2. Microscopic study of epithelial and connective tissue
  3. Microscopic study of muscular and nervous tissue
  4. Identification of axial bones
  5. Identification of appendicular bones
  6. Introduction to hemocytometry.
  7. Enumeration of white blood cell (WBC) count
  8. Enumeration of total red blood corpuscles (RBC) count
  9. Determination of the bleeding time
  10. Determination of clotting time
  11. Estimation of haemoglobin content
  12. Determination of blood group.
  13. Determination of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR).
  14. Determination of heart rate and pulse rate.
  15. Recording of blood pressure.

Remedial Biology Practicals

  1. Introduction to experiments in biology a) Study of Microscope b) Section cutting techniques c) Mounting and staining d) Permanent slide preparation 2. Study of cell and its inclusions 3. Study of Stem, Root, Leaf, seed, fruit, flower and their modifications 4. Detailed study of frog by using computer models 5. Microscopic study and identification of tissues pertinent to Stem, Root Leaf, seed, fruit and flower 6. Identification of bones 7. Determination of blood group 8. Determination of blood pressure 9. Determination of tidal volume

First Year B Pharm Notes, Syllabus, Books, PDF Subjectwise/Topicwise

First Year B Pharm Notes, Syllabus, Books, PDF Subjectwise/Topicwise

F Y B Pharm Sem-IS Y B Pharm Sem-II
BP101T Human Anatomy and Physiology I TheoryBP201T Human Anatomy and Physiology II – Theory
BP102T Pharmaceutical Analysis I TheoryBP202T Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry I Theory
BP103T Pharmaceutics I TheoryBP203T Biochemistry – Theory
BP104T Pharmaceutical Inorganic Chemistry TheoryBP204T Pathophysiology – Theory
BP105T Communication skills TheoryBP205T Computer Applications in Pharmacy Theory
BP106RBT Remedial BiologyBP206T Environmental sciences – Theory
BP106RMT Remedial Mathematics TheoryBP207P Human Anatomy and Physiology II Practical
BP107P Human Anatomy and Physiology PracticalBP208P Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry I Practical
BP108P Pharmaceutical Analysis I PracticalBP209P Biochemistry Practical
BP109P Pharmaceutics I PracticalBP210P Computer Applications in Pharmacy Practical
BP110P Pharmaceutical Inorganic Chemistry Practical
BP111P Communication skills Practical
BP112RBP Remedial Biology Practical

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