August 11, 2024

# Determination of moisture content and loss on drying: Pharm Engg Lab

## Determination of moisture content and loss on drying: Pharm Engg Lab

### AIM:

To determine the moisture content and loss on drying.

### REQUIREMENTS:

• Petri dish
• Measuring cylinder
• Pipette
• Tray dryer
• Calcium carbonate
• Spatula
• Weighing balance

### PROCEDURE:

• Take a clean dry Petri dish and weigh it (x)
• Weigh 10g of calcium carbonate powder and transfer to Petri dish and weight it
• Add a sufficient amount of water with the help of a pipette to the powder until slurry forms.
• Again weigh the Petri dish and note down weight (y)
• Place the Petri dish in a tray dryer and weigh it every 5 min
• Allow it to dry until it’s constant weight then down the constant dry weight (z)
• Calculate the percentage loss on drying and moisture content for the sample.

### REPORT:

The moisture content and loss on drying were determined
The percentage of moisture content is =
The loss on drying is =

### Calculation:

• Weight of empty petridish (x) =
• Weight of empty petridish + sample + water (y) = Weight of empty petridish + sample + water (After drying at every 5 minutes) =
• Loss of drying =

Pharm Engg Chapterwise MCQ: UNIT-I MCQ * Flow of fluids * Size reduction * Size separation UNIT-II MCQ *Heat transfer *Distillation *Evaporation UNIT-III MCQ *Drying * Mixing UNIT-IV MCQ * Filtration * Centrifugation * UNIT-V MCQ Materials of construction * Corrosion

What is the moisture content in pharmaceuticals, and why is it important to determine it?

Moisture content refers to the amount of water present in a pharmaceutical substance. It is crucial to determine moisture content as excess moisture can lead to degradation, microbial growth, and altered physical properties of the product.

What is the principle behind the determination of moisture content using the Karl Fischer titration method?

The Karl Fischer titration method relies on the reaction between water and iodine. The amount of iodine required to react with the water in the sample is proportional to the moisture content, allowing for accurate moisture determination.

How does the loss on drying (LOD) method differ from the Karl Fischer method in moisture determination?

Loss on Drying (LOD) involves measuring the weight loss of a sample upon heating at a specific temperature, typically around 105°C. It captures not only water but also volatile solvents or other volatile components. Karl Fischer titration specifically targets water content.

What are the factors that can affect the accuracy of moisture content determination?

Factors like temperature, humidity, sample size, handling, and the method used can influence the accuracy of moisture content determination. Proper calibration and control of these factors are essential for precise results.

Why is it necessary to perform moisture content analysis on raw materials in pharmaceutical manufacturing?

Raw materials with varying moisture content can affect the quality, stability, and processing of pharmaceutical products. Analyzing moisture content helps ensure consistent product quality.

Can you explain the procedure for determining loss on drying (LOD) in pharmaceutical substances?

The LOD method involves weighing a sample, heating it at a specific temperature (usually 105°C), and re-weighing it until a constant weight is achieved. The weight loss indicates the amount of volatile substances, including water, in the sample.

What challenges might arise when determining moisture content in hygroscopic materials?

Hygroscopic materials readily absorb moisture from the environment, making it challenging to accurately measure their moisture content. Special handling and quick analysis are often required.

Are there alternative methods for moisture content determination besides Karl Fischer titration and loss on drying?

Yes, other methods include infrared moisture balance, capacitance-based moisture analyzers, and gravimetric methods. Each method has its advantages and limitations.

Why is it important to report moisture content results on a dry basis in pharmaceutical analysis?

Reporting moisture content on a dry basis eliminates the influence of the sample’s original weight, providing a consistent measure of the actual moisture content regardless of initial variations in sample size.

How does the regulatory authority (like pharmacopeias) play a role in setting standards for moisture content in pharmaceuticals?

Regulatory bodies, such as pharmacopeias, establish guidelines and acceptance criteria for moisture content to ensure product quality, safety, and efficacy. Compliance with these standards is crucial for regulatory approval.