February 23, 2024

Desert ecosystem, Mountain, Cave & Tundra ecosystem: EVS Notes

Desert ecosystem, Mountain, Cave & Tundra ecosystem: EVS Notes

EVS Notes Unit I Multidisciplinary nature, Natural Resources, Forest resources, Water resources, Mineral resources, Food resources, Energy resources, Land resources, Role of an individual Unit II Introduction structure-function, Forest eco-system; Grassland ecosystem; Desert ecosystem; Aquatic ecosystems Unit III Air pollution, Water pollution, Soil pollution


THE DESERT ECOSYSTEM

The areas with an annual rainfall of less than 25 cm come in deserts. They occupy about 17% of the land. Due to extremes of both, water and temperature factors, the biota is much more varied and is poorly represented. The various components of the ecosystem are:

Abiotic components

In deserts, ecosystem temperature is found to be very high and rainfall is very low. A dry atmosphere, high temperature, and intense illumination favor the rate of transpiration.

Biotic components

These are as follows:

a) Producers

These are shrubs, especially bushes, some grasses, and a few trees. The shrubs have a widespread branched root system with their leaves, branches, and stems variously modified. Sometimes a few succulents like cacti are also present. Some lower plants like lichens and xerophytic mosses may also be present.

b) Consumers

Insects, reptiles, nocturnal rodents, birds, camels, etc. are the main consumers.

c) Decomposes

These are very few, as due to poor vegetation the amount of dead organic matter is correspondingly less. They are some fungi and bacteria, most of which are thermophilic.


THE MOUNTAIN ECOSYSTEM

The chief components of the ecosystem are:

Abiotic components

It is the altitude that provides different climates.

Biotic components

These are as follows:

a) Producers

They differ to the difference in climatic conditions even on the same mountain e.g., in the forests, trees are the main producers, while in the desert the chief producers are shrubs, herbs, and only a few trees.

b) Consumers

They vary with the type of producers in the area.


CAVE ECOSYSTEM

A cave is a natural hollow opening under the surface of the earth, or a mountain or a hill. Many caves are found in North America and Europe, e.g., Mammoth cave in North America. The main components of the cave ecosystem are as follows:

Abiotic components

The absence of light is the most striking feature since it has a telling effect on the cave-dwelling organisms. Temperature is nearly uniform, except for some fluctuations with the depth of the cave. Several fluctuations in moisture levels occur. Atmospheric pressure varies from that of the terrestrial environment.

Biotic components

These are as follows:

a) Producers

They are almost absent.

b) Consumers

Both vertebrates and invertebrates of cave-dwelling existence are found. They may be temporary, such as bats, owls, etc., or permanent, such as turbellarians, Leeches, insects, etc., (invertebrates). Mammals are rare; birds are absent.

c) Decomposers

Fungi and bacteria are present


TUNDRA ECOSYSTEM

Tundra means a barren land or hostile territory. Tundra biomes occur in the polar regions in northern Canada, Greenland, other islands of the Arctic oceans, and northern Europe (northern hemisphere). Since the Antarctic Ocean has not been exploited much; this biome has been designated as Arctic Tundra. The Tundra biome also occurs on the peaks of the High mountains of the world and has been called the Alpine Tundra. The chief components of the Tundra ecosystem are as follows:

Abiotic components

These include temperature, light, moisture, pressure, soil, etc. This temperature exerts a very powerful influence so that only a few organisms have successfully got adapted to the Tundra conditions. In the Arctic Tundra, the winters are very long and cold, during which the ground remains frozen. The summer is short and sharp during which snow melts to some depth only, hence the deeper layer of soil remains permanently frozen and is known as permafrost. Due to this Tundra soil is very shallow. In the Alpine Tundra, the Alpine climate prevails.

Biotic components

These are as follows:

a) Producers

Suitable conditions for plant growth exist only for about 60 days. The dominant producers are the hardiest of plants like bushes, lichens, mosses, grasses, and grass-like herbs.

b) Consumers

These include mammals like carbou, hares, reindeer, foxes, and polar bears, amphibians and reptiles are totally absent. However, some species of birds and insects are present. The insects are represented by black flies, bumble bees, etc. The birds are migratory and are represented by arctic loon, goose, hawks, gulls, larks, etc. The South Pole has only marine birds and penguins. The fauna of the Alpine Tundra varies with the type of vegetation.


First Year B Pharm Notes, Syllabus, Books, PDF Subjectwise/Topicwise

F Y B Pharm Sem-IF Y B Pharm Sem-II
BP101T Human Anatomy and Physiology I TheoryBP201T Human Anatomy and Physiology II – Theory
BP102T Pharmaceutical Analysis I TheoryBP202T Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry I Theory
BP103T Pharmaceutics I TheoryBP203T Biochemistry – Theory
BP104T Pharmaceutical Inorganic Chemistry TheoryBP204T Pathophysiology – Theory
BP105T Communication skills TheoryBP205T Computer Applications in Pharmacy Theory
BP106RBT Remedial BiologyBP206T Environmental sciences – Theory
BP106RMT Remedial Mathematics TheoryBP207P Human Anatomy and Physiology II Practical
BP107P Human Anatomy and Physiology PracticalBP208P Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry I Practical
BP108P Pharmaceutical Analysis I PracticalBP209P Biochemistry Practical
BP109P Pharmaceutics I PracticalBP210P Computer Applications in Pharmacy Practical
BP110P Pharmaceutical Inorganic Chemistry Practical
BP111P Communication skills Practical
BP112RBP Remedial Biology Practical

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