November 28, 2023

Demonstration of the Visual Activity: Human Anatomy and Physiology Practical

Demonstration of the Visual Activity: Human Anatomy and Physiology Practical


To demonstrate the visual activity.


Stellen and Jeager’s chart pin occluder, card or tissue paper,Torch or flashlight.


Snellen’s Chart Test:

pon This space related resolution is useful to check vision clarity. The acuity of distant and Visual acuity (VA) is an ability of visual processing system to discriminate between two war vision is commonly tested by Snellen’s test and Jaeger’s test respectively which consist a series of letters arranged in lines each diminishing and increasing in size.

The Snellen’s chart consists of the topmost line which can be read by a normal person at 6m The distance of subject from the chart is of 6 m/ 20 feet which is considered as optical a distance of 60 m and subsequent smaller letter lines at the distance of 36, 24, 18, 12, 9 and intity and state of completely relaxed ciliary muscles. Visual acuity is read as 6/60, 6/36, 624 618, 6/12, 6/9 and 6/6; the normal person’s vision is V = 6/6. The upper number refers next to the line on the chart) is the distance in metres at which a ‘normal’ eye is able to read to the distance of the chart from the subject (6 m) and the lower number (usually written that line of the chart. TV < 6/60 the subject is asked to count the fingers (finger counting method) or to perceive hand movements (hand movement method) or to perceive focused light (light perception method).

Jeager’s Chart Test:

The Jeager’s chart consists of letters or paragraphs of various sizes, increasing from 237 mm to 25 mm. The size of the print read by the subject determines the near vision acuity. The smallest point is N5 and the largest point is N36. As you progress to larger point, the lettering size increases for lesser visual acuity. Persons with normal vision should be able to read the smallest print in good lighting, at a comfortable reading distance. The card is held 14 inches (356 mm) from the person’s eye for the test. A result of 14/20 means that the person can read at 14 inches what someone with normal vision can read at 20 inches.


(a)  Distant vision:

1 Ensure adequate natural light or make provision of required illumination on the chart 2 Ask the subject to sit, at a distance of 6 m/ 20 feet from the Snellen’s chart.

2. Test one eye at a time, at first without any spectacles (if already has worn).

3. Ask the subject to cover one eye with a plain occluder, card or tissue paper.

4. Ask the subject to read the line from the top of the chart and from left to right.

5. If the subject cannot read the largest (top) letter at 6 m, move him/her 1 m closer at a time, until the top letter can be seen; the VA will be recorded as 5/60 or 4/60 etc.

6. If the top letter cannot be read even at 1 m (1/60), finger counting method is used Hold up your fingers at varying distances of less than 1 m and check whether the subject can count them. This is recorded as counting fingers (CF): VA=CF.

7. If the subject cannot count fingers, hand movement method is used. Wave your hand and check if subject can see this. This is recorded as hand movements (HM): VA=HM.

8. If the subject cannot see hand movements, light perception method is used. Focus a torch toward the eye and ask if they can see the light. If they can, record ‘perception of light (VA=PL). If they cannot, record ‘no perception of light’ (VA=NPL).

9. After testing without using spectacles, test the subject while wearing any current distance spectacles and record the VA in each eye separately.

10. Repeat the whole procedure for the second eye.

11. Summarize the VA of both eyes.

Snellen’s Chart

(a)  Near vision:

1 Place the chart at 14 inches from the subject’s eye and illuminate the chart at that distance,

  • If the subject uses glasses, then the test shall be performed using it.
  • Place the occluder in front of the eye that is not being evaluated. The first evaluated eye is the one that with which the subject is seeing less.
  • Start with the big letters and then proceed to the smaller ones. The subject shall identify each letter on the line and communicate it to the observer.
  • Change the occluder to the other eye and proceed again as per the 4th step.
  • Summarise the VA of both eyes.
Jeager’s Chart

Observation table:

For distance Vision

EyeVAVA= ( +/ -)  VA =(+/-)VA= PL(+/-)

For Near Vision


(VA= Visual Acuity; CF= Counting of fingers; HM= Hand movements; PL= Perception of light)

BP207P Human Anatomy and Physiology II Practical

To study the integumentary and special senses using specimens, models, etc.,
To study the nervous system using specimens, models, etc.,
To study the endocrine system using specimens, models, etc
To demonstrate the general neurological examination
To demonstrate the function of olfactory nerve
To examine the different types of taste.
To demonstrate the visual acuity
To demonstrate the reflex activity
Recording of body temperature
Determination of tidal volume and vital capacity.
Study of digestive, respiratory, cardiovascular systems, urinary and reproductive systems with the help of models, charts and specimens.
Recording of the basal mass index.
Study of family planning devices and pregnancy diagnosis test.
Demonstration of total blood count by cell analyzer
Permanent slides of vital organs and gonads

First Year B Pharm Notes, Syllabus, Books, PDF Subjectwise/Topicwise

F Y B Pharm Sem-IF Y B Pharm Sem-II
BP101T Human Anatomy and Physiology I TheoryBP201T Human Anatomy and Physiology II – Theory
BP102T Pharmaceutical Analysis I TheoryBP202T Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry I Theory
BP103T Pharmaceutics I TheoryBP203T Biochemistry – Theory
BP104T Pharmaceutical Inorganic Chemistry TheoryBP204T Pathophysiology – Theory
BP105T Communication skills TheoryBP205T Computer Applications in Pharmacy Theory
BP106RBT Remedial BiologyBP206T Environmental sciences – Theory
BP106RMT Remedial Mathematics TheoryBP207P Human Anatomy and Physiology II Practical
BP107P Human Anatomy and Physiology PracticalBP208P Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry I Practical
BP108P Pharmaceutical Analysis I PracticalBP209P Biochemistry Practical
BP109P Pharmaceutics I PracticalBP210P Computer Applications in Pharmacy Practical
BP110P Pharmaceutical Inorganic Chemistry Practical
BP111P Communication skills Practical
BP112RBP Remedial Biology Practical

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