July 24, 2024

Demonstration of colloid mill, planetary mixer, fluidized bed dryer, freeze dryer

Demonstration of colloid mill, planetary mixer, fluidized bed dryer, freeze dryer

Pharmaceutical Engineering Practical Lab Manual PDF Download

Demonstrating Colloid Mill, Planetary Mixer, Fluidized Bed Dryer, Freeze Dryer.


 The colloid mill is used to reduce the size of the suspended droplets
 The material is fed in through the inlet hopper and placed into the mill
 It is then moved through the narrow gap between the rotor and stator to reduce the particle size
 Then final product is removed through the outlet


 The material to be mixed is loaded into a mixing bowl or shell
 The blades rotate on their own axis when they orbit the mixing bowl on a common axis. Therefore there is no dead spot in the mixing and high shear is applied to mixing
 After mixing, the material is discharged through a bottom value or by manual scooping of the material from the bowl


 The wet granules to be dried are placed in a detachable bowl, the bowl is inserted into the dryer
 Fresh air can pass through a pre-filter, which is then heated when passing through a heat exchanger
 Hot air flows through the bottom of the bowl at the same time, the fan starts to rotate the airspeed increases gradually
 After a specific time, a pressure point is reached in which the friction drag on the particles is equal to the force of gravity. The granules rise in the container. This condition is said to be the fluidized state
 The gas surrounds each granule to dry them completely the air comes out of the dryer passing through the filters in the bag
 The entrained particles remain adhered to the interior of the surface of the bags. Periodically, the bags are shaken to remove entrained particles
 The materials are left in the dryer to reach room temperature
 The bowl is removed, and the final product is free-flowing


 The material is pre-treated before freezing pre-treatment methods include freezing concentration, solution-phase concentration and formulation to preserve the appearance of the product. Formulation to stabilize reactive products. Formulation to increase the surface area and decrease high vapour pressure solvent
 The product should be frozen at a temperature low enough to solidify completely. The products are frozen in two ways, most of the products that are lyophilized consist mainly of water. It is very important in lyophilisation to pre-freeze the product below the eutectic temperature before beginning the lyophilisation process
 After the pre-freezing, the product conditions must be established in which the ice can be removed from the frozen product through sublimation resulting in a dry, structurally intact product
 After primary freeze-drying is complete and all the ice has sublimed, bound moisture is still present in the product. The product appears dry, but the residual moisture content may be as high as 7-8% continued drying is necessary at warmer temperatures to reduce the residual moisture content to an optimum value. This process is called “isothermal desorption” secondary drying is usually carried out for approximately 1/3 or 1/2 the time required for primary drying
 After the vacuum is replaced by an inert gas, the bottle and vials are closed

Pharm Engg Chapterwise MCQ: UNIT-I MCQ * Flow of fluids * Size reduction * Size separation UNIT-II MCQ *Heat transfer *Distillation *Evaporation UNIT-III MCQ *Drying * Mixing UNIT-IV MCQ * Filtration * Centrifugation * UNIT-V MCQ Materials of construction * Corrosion

Pharmaceutical Engineering Practical Lab Manual PDF Download

I. Determination of radiation constant of brass, iron, unpainted and painted glass.
II. Steam distillation – To calculate the efficiency of steam distillation.
III. To determine the overall heat transfer coefficient by the heat exchanger.
IV. Construction of drying curves (for calcium carbonate and starch).
V. Determination of moisture content and loss on drying.
VI. Determination of humidity of the air – i) From wet and dry bulb temperatures –use of Dew point method.
VII. Description of Construction working and application of Pharmaceutical Machinery such as rotary tablet machine, fluidized bed coater, fluid energy mill, dehumidifier.
VIII. Size analysis by sieving – To evaluate size distribution of tablet granulations – Construction of various size frequency curves including arithmetic and logarithmic probability plots.
IX. Size reduction: To verify the laws of size reduction using a ball mill and determining Kicks, Rittinger’s, Bond’s coefficients, power requirement and critical speed of Ball Mill.
X. Demonstration of colloid mill, planetary mixer, fluidized bed dryer, freeze dryer and such other major equipment.
XI. Factors affecting Rate of Filtration and Evaporation (Surface area, Concentration and Thickness/ viscosity)
XII. To study the effect of time on the Rate of Crystallization.
XIII. To calculate the uniformity Index for a given sample by using Double Cone Blender.

Second Year B Pharm Notes, Syllabus, Books, PDF Subjectwise/Topicwise

S Y B Pharm Sem IIIS Y B Pharm Sem IV
BP301T Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry II TheoryBP401T Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry III Theory
BP302T Physical Pharmaceutics I TheoryBP402T Medicinal Chemistry I Theory
BP303T Pharmaceutical Microbiology TheoBP403T Physical Pharmaceutics II Theory
BP304T Pharmaceutical Engineering TheoryBP404T Pharmacology I Theory
BP305P Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry II PracticalBP405T Pharmacognosy I Theory
BP306P Physical Pharmaceutics I PracticalBP406P Medicinal Chemistry I Practical
BP307P Pharmaceutical Microbiology PracticalBP407P Physical Pharmaceutics II Practical
BP308P Pharmaceutical Engineering PracticalBP408P Pharmacology I Practical
BP409P Pharmacognosy I Practical

Suggested Readings