Demonstration function of olfactory nerve: Human Anatomy and Physiology Practical
To demonstrate the function of Olfactory nerve.
Clove oil, turpentine oil, alcohol, peppermint oil, eucalyptus oil etc.
The olfactory nerve (I) is responsible for perception as well as adaptation of smell. The perception of smell takes place by the pathway summarized below:
- The olfactory receptors lie in the nasal epithelium in superior portion of nasal
- The olfactory impulse is conducted through olfactory nerve to the olfactory bulb in which are activated by odorant stimuli.
- The olfactory bulb neurons carry the impulse through olfactory tract to limbie system, thalamus and primary olfactory area of the temporal cortex which is perceived as smell.
Adaptation to smell is decreasing the sensitivity of the olfactory receptors. In general complete insensitivity to certain odours occurs within a minute after exposure to the odorant stimuli. It follows a similar olfactory pathway as described above.
Select one healthy subject for the test.
(a) Perception of smell:
1 Ask the subject to close the eyes and then occlude one of the nostrils.
2. Ask the subject to smell and distinguish the odours of each of the test substances by each nostril separately.
3. Record the results as +/- for smell perception as per the observation table.
(b) Adaptation to smell:
- Ask the subject to occlude one nostril and to smell the test substance 1 until the smell is no longer detected and the nostril gets adapted.
- Immediately ask the subject to distinguish between smell of test substance 2 and 3 with the same adapted nostril.
- Record the results as +/- for adaptation to smell as per the observation table.
|Test||Test Substances 1||Test Substances 2||Test Substances 3|
|Perception of smell|
|Adaptation to smell|
The function of the olfactory nerve is to transmit information about smells from the nose to the brain, allowing us to perceive and interpret different odors. It plays a crucial role in our sense of smell, which can evoke strong emotions, trigger memories, and influence our perception of the world around us.
The olfactory receptors are activated by chemical compounds called odorants. Odorants are volatile substances that can be found in the air or dissolved in liquids. When we inhale or come into contact with these odorant molecules, they can bind to specific odorant receptors located on the olfactory receptor neurons in the nasal cavity.
Reception of odor molecules: When we inhale, odor molecules in the air enter the nasal cavity and bind to specialized receptors located in the olfactory epithelium, which lines the nasal cavity.
Signal transmission: The receptors in the olfactory epithelium generate electrical signals in response to specific odor molecules. These signals are then transmitted to the olfactory bulb through bundles of nerve fibers called olfactory nerves.
Odor processing: Once the electrical signals reach the olfactory bulb, they undergo complex processing. The olfactory bulb contains different types of cells, including mitral cells and tufted cells, which receive and relay the signals. This processing involves the discrimination and interpretation of different odorant molecules.
Integration and relay: After the processing stage, the olfactory bulb sends the processed information to various areas of the brain, including the olfactory cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus. This allows for the recognition, memory formation, and emotional response to odors.
BP207P Human Anatomy and Physiology II Practical
To study the integumentary and special senses using specimens, models, etc.,
To study the nervous system using specimens, models, etc.,
To study the endocrine system using specimens, models, etc
To demonstrate the general neurological examination
To demonstrate the function of olfactory nerve
To examine the different types of taste.
To demonstrate the visual acuity
To demonstrate the reflex activity
Recording of body temperature
Determination of tidal volume and vital capacity.
Study of digestive, respiratory, cardiovascular systems, urinary and reproductive systems with the help of models, charts and specimens.
Recording of the basal mass index.
Study of family planning devices and pregnancy diagnosis test.
Demonstration of total blood count by cell analyzer
Permanent slides of vital organs and gonads
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